Датчик порового давления цифровой

Датчик порового давления цифровой (далее ДПДЦ), предназначен для измерения  поровых давлений в грунтовом массиве и преобразования полученных измерений в цифровой код в период изысканий, строительства и эксплуатации сооружений 1-го уровня ответственности, а также при мониторинге природных оползневых процессов.

Скважинный трехкомпонентный цифровой акселерометр сильных движений

Скважинный трехкомпонентный цифровой акселерометр сильных движений, разработанный в рамках договора с ОАО «Газпром»

«Sakhalin-2» Project

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TOPSIDES INDUCED ACCELERATION MONITORING SYSTEM FOR OIL AND GAS OFFSHORE PLATFORMS – TIAMS

 

Abbreviations

ADC

Analog Digital Converter

CCM

Calibration control module

CCT-C

Cable Connection Terminal for filed conditions, central

CCT-C

Cable Connection Terminal for filed conditions, remote

DSCPS

System for data storage, control and processing

DSCPS-M

System for data storage, control and processing, modify

ESD

Emergency Shutdown

HMI

Human Machine Interface

ICSS

Integrated Control and Safety System

LUN-A

Lunskoe field

MCC

Measuring – control complex

MER

Main Equipment Room

PA-B

Piltun – Astokhskoe field

PCM

Primary converters module

PCS

Platform Control System

RMS

Remote Measuring system

RMU

Remote Measuring Unit

TIAMS

Topsides Induced Acceleration Monitoring System

UAE

Unified Automatic equipment

UCP

Unit Control Panel

According to the Sakhalin II Project Sakhalin Energy Investment Company is building offshore oil and gas platforms PA-B and LUN-A at the Sakhalin Island shelf.

The platforms are situated within the seismically dangerous area where destructive earthquakes are likely to occur.

To reduce the risk of environmental accidents that can appear during oil and gas production the as a result of destructive earthquake Client took a decision to provide platforms with Topsides Induced Acceleration Monitoring System (further referred as TIAMS).

Institute of the Environmental Geosciences RAS has won the Tender for design, development and manufacturing of the TIAMS arranged by Sakhalin Energy (further referred as SEIC). Basing on the technical assignment Information and Measuring Systems Department, IEG RAS has designed and manufactured in 2005-2006 TIAMS packages for two offshore oil and gas platforms near Piltun – Astokhskoe ( PA_B) and Lunskoe ( LUN-A) fields.

LUN-A and PA-B platforms are very complicated constructions. Each platform has three decks of the football ground size. The platforms are supported by four legs. Their diameters are from 16 to 24 meters , height is approximately 60 m ; depth of the sea at the site is 30...35 m. the lower decks are placed at the height of ~ 27 m , the upper decks are at the height of 50…60 m above the sea surface.

Friction pendulum bearings are placed at the tops of the legs to damp horizontal oscillations under seismic and load impacts to the platform supports.

the main function of the TIAMS is to determine dangerous earthquakes from other impacts induced to the platform ( ice impacts, ship impacts, wave impacts, drill snatch, etc.) that can cause accelerations same to the dangerous earthquakes accelerations at the topsides of the platforms. In case the destructive earthquake has been detected and its acceleration level exceed the threshold of 0,5 g ( assigned by the Client) in any key point of the platform the TIAMS shall initiate the Emergency Shutdown signal ( ESD) .

In such away TIAMS shall provide safety of the oil and gas offshore platforms.

It is necessary to mention that there were no such systems in the world practice between earthquake detection systems that can detect earthquakes from other impacts that can cause the same accelerations as dangerous earthquakes.

IEG RAS has to solve the following tasks during the development and manufacturing that are due to the Client's specifications and platform construction:

  • TIAMS shall work within severe ambient conditions, i.e. minus 40? С ….+50? С in aggressive medium ( salt fogs);
  • TIAMS shall work in the gas dangerous area, i.e. it shall comply with the requirements of intrinsically and explosion proof safety.
  • TIAMS shall comply with the requirements if the IEC 61508 «Electrical, electronic, programmable electronic systems connected with functional safety »;
  • TIAMS shall pass certification to obtain certificates for its elements and overall system;
  • IEG RAS shall simulate all input loads during Factory Acceptance test;
  • IEG RAS shall determine requirements to the frequency and dynamic band of the measured accelerations;
  • IEG RAS shall determine platform responses to the dangerous loads;
  • IEG RAS shall select key points for the placement of sensors to minimize the configuration of the TIAMS.

The solution was based on the Unified automated equipment elements (UAE) designed in the Seismological center by IEG RAS for forecasting polygons of seismic dangerous regions of Russia from 1996-1998 in the frames of the Federal Program “ development of the federal seismic monitoring system and forecasts of earthquakes in 1996-2000” ( for detailed description of UAE see IEG RAS web-site : www.geoenv.ru).

АМЕС ( affiliate of SEIC) has developed mathematical model of the platform in была ABAQUS software and modeled seismic impact to the platform. IEG RAS specialists then formalized all external loads and simulated their impacts for ABAQUS platform models. then IEG RAS specialists analyzed platform responses to the impact loads and earthquakes ( more than 60 thousand diagrams and schemes) .

During the first stage IEG RAS has done the following:

  • Theoretical justification of the external non- seismic impacts to the platform, detection of their features: value and direction of the affecting forces and time dependences.
  • Modeled of 17 variant of impacts using ABAQUS platform model developed by AMEC.
  • Qualitative physical analyses of the topsides responses to the earthquakes and other impacts, detection of the main directions and methods of the mathematical processing of the modeling results.
  • Developed the software program to process modeling results.
  • Analyses of modeling results from seismic and non-seismic impacts.
  • Determined the key point for the sensors and their numbers as 6.
  • Developed requirements for sensors installation.
  • Developed earthquake detection algorithm and algorithm of ESD signal initiation

 

An experience in development of such systems and its operation in the severe environment are very important for solving the same problems at other hazardous ecological objects, such as atomic power plants, chemical plats, high dams and barrages. Such systems can also be used to provide safety of the mega polices.

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOPSIDES INDUCED ACCELERATION MONITORING SYSTEM (TIAMS)

TIAMS block diagram is given at the drawing 1.

TIAMS includes 6 Remote Measuring Units (RMU) and equipments placed in the Unit Control Panel (UCP).

RMU layout is given at the drawings 2, 3, 4. UCP layout is given at the drawings 5 - 6

 

Fig. 2. RMU form

Fig. 3. RMU with open cover

Fig. 4. RMU, view from above, open cover.

Fig. 5. UCP

Fig. 6. UCP, view without back panel

 

RMU content is given in the table 2

Table 2

 

Item

 

 

Quantity

Enclosure

1

Accelerometers Device (AD):

1

Measuring converters Module

3

Patch Board

1

Platform Position transducer

1

Electronic Device (ED):

1

Frequency Characteristic Forming Module

3

Remote Measuring System:

2

Analog-digital Converter Module

2

Micro-Controlling Module

2

Calibration controlling Module

1

Secondary power supply Module

1

Secondary power supply Module, reserved

1

Cable Connection Terminal for Field devices, remote

1

ED Cross-plate

1

Output Terminal

1

Set of the internal connection cables:

 

Connection cable between «Measuring Converter Module/ Patch Board»

3

Flat flexible Connection cable between «Patch Board/ ED Cross-plate»

3

Connection cable between Output Terminal and ED Cross-Plate «ED/ ХТ 1»

1

 

Three – component accelerometers (T А ), RMS, CCT-R are constructively united into the Remote Measuring Unit (RMU), which is designed as the field device permitted to be used in the hazardous environment and severe severity conditions. RMU is located directly in the measuring point.

Fig. 7. Three-component accelerometer (Primary converters module and Frequency characteristic)

The rest elements of the MCC are placed in the Unit Control Panel (UCP) placed in the Main Equipment Room (MER) of the oil and gas offshore platform.

UCP includes the following elements:

Unit

Quantity

Cable Connection terminal for field devices, central (CCT)

CCT 10.00.00

3

System for data storage, control and processing (DSCPS)

DSCPS.00.00.00

6

System for data storage, control and processing, modified (DSCPS-M)

DSCPS.10.00.00

2

Set of the connection cables UCP10.000.00

1

Industrial controlling computer M-MAX700

2

Industrial monitor VT151RM-301-3-00-27

1

RMU Power supply units

QUINT-PS-100-240AC/24DC/10

2

DSCPS, DSCPS-M power supply units QUINT-PS-100-240AC/24DC/10

2

Controlling computer power supply units

QUINT-PS-100-240AC/24DC/10

2

Switch KMV «keyboard- mouse- monitor» VIP-708-KMV

1

Terminals ХТ 1- ХТ 13

13

Internal light system

1

Microclimate control system

1

 

Signals, coming from the RMU to the control panel are transferred by the standard interface RS-485. Date rate through the COM port is 115200 bit/sec. Acquisition and preprocessing of the data received from the RMU is effected in the DSCPS. DSCPS-M carries out the temporary storage of data received from the DSCPS, forms the data blocks in the defined format, processes the information according to the defined algorithm and transfers it through the standard serial interface RS-485 to the controlling computer for registration, viewing and current control of the equipment status. In case the DSCPS-M finds the hazardous seismic event it initiates the ESD signal. Storage and processing of the received information and the viewing are done on the processing computer.

TIAMS is designed for the automatic mode of operation and it provides control and operation of all system elements automatically.

TIAMS has the embed means of diagnostic of the hardware and provides the automatic finding of the emergency situations (at that TIAMS provides the “FAILURE” signal).

The controlling computer and the processing computer provide the human – machine interface (HMI) within the operating system. The processing computer sets the operating modes for the TIAMS and makes changes the configuration. The current status of the system elements, results of the diagnostic, emergency reports, etc are displayed at the monitor.

TIAMS modes

TIAMS has the following operation modes:

  • configuration mode (job assignment);
  • operation mode;
  • testing mode.

Configuring mode allows determining the logic addresses of the RMU, calibration coefficients of the installed accelerometers, thresholds to track the dangerous seismic events, location and length of files with the recorded received data, etc.

After the power supply is switched on the TIAMS proceeds to the operation mode, and the work begins from the selection of the job entered in the configuring mode. After the self – diagnostic and evaluation of the real configuration job adequacy the TIAMS begins to monitor the accelerations in the selected points of the platform, then to analyze the events, and provide the ESD signal initiation when it finds the dangerous earthquake according to the defined algorithm. It also provides the recurring calibration of the accelerometers.

The testing mode allows effecting the detailed examination of the modules capacity for work.

Switching of the system

The system switching is done in three stages as follows:

  • self-testing;
  • job of the configuration parameters;
  • system starting.

Self-testing

On switching all programmable devices of the system (RMS, CCM.DSCPS, DSCPS-M, and Controlling Computer) are running the self-testing and inspection of the connection of the subordinate devices. The test functions of each device are described in the section 'Efficiency monitoring ".

After self-testing and detection of the efficiency of the connected programmable devices, the DCSPS is doing the initial calibration of the accelerometers.

The results of self-testing are transmitted to the seignior devices upon requests.

After self-testing of all modules have been finished, the results are displayed at the screen of the controlling computer and registered in the protocol. The results are as follows:

  • devices' addresses tree;
  • self-testing results of each device: 'no-fault" or list of the malfunctions;
  • calibration results from each accelerometer.

The DSCPS-M passes a "Failure "signal to the PCS in case a malfunction is found. If malfunctions are not resulted in a complete loss of system efficiency, then the system will go on operating with the following restrains:

  • in case of failure of the calibration platform, the calibration shall not be running until
    it will be replaced;
  • in case of failure of one of the accelerometers, the averaging -out shall be done with
    two remained;
  • in case of failure of the RMU or DSCPS, the system will go on operating but the probability of false response will be increased;
  • in case of failure of the active DSCPS-M, its the reserved one takes up its functions;
  • in case of failure of the port or connection line RS-485-1ofthe DSCPS-M the
    connection shall be through the reserved port RS-485-2;
  • in case of failure of the Controlling computer, the doubling takes up its functions;

In case there are no fatal malfunctions, the system proceeds to the assigning of the parameters of configuration, otherwise the system is considered as inoperative until fault removal.

Assigning of the configuration parameters

After the self-testing has been completed, the system checks up the availability of the job assignment with system parameters and its configuration. Parameters are stored in the file with a fixed name at the Controlling computer. If system configuration defined during self-testing concurs with the configuration from the job assignment file, then the automatic start-up of the system shall be done (if there is defined parameter of auto start).

In case there is no file with job assignment, or it is not correct, or it doesn't conform to the system configuration defined during the self-testing then, the system shall wait for the entering of the correct parameters which include the following:

  • Tree of the serial numbers and addresses of the units;
  • Acceleration numeralization frequency;
  • RMS channels in use;
  • Periodicity of testing and accelerometers calibration;
  • Factors of the analogue digital readout conversion into acceleration;
  • Threshold value of the acceleration;
  • Earthquake detection algorithm parameters;

After the correct parameters have been entered, the specialist starts up the system.

System start up

On start up command the following is carried out:

  • time synchronization to the Platform time system;
  • transmission of the job assignment to the subordinate devices.
  • starting of all units.

Efficiency monitoring

Each unit periodically does self-testing and informs the seignior device about results.

Each unit monitors the subordinate devices.

Each unit controls the connection with subordinate units.

Two DSCPS-Ms check the operation of each other and in case of failure of the main DSCPS-M, the other one takes up its functions.

In case any of the DSCPS-M fails then the "FAILURE» signal is initiated.

The information of found malfunctions is displayed at the screen of the controlling computer and registered in the protocol.

All diagnostic can be done in the automatic mode according to the program and under the commands from the operator.

All processor units (RMS, CCM, DSCPS, DSCPS-M and Controlling Computer) have WatchDog timers to prevent the suspension of the program.

RMS and CCM diagnostics.

RMS diagnostic functions

RMS controller carries out the diagnostic of the following:

  • RMS programs memory;
  • RMS data memory;
  • RMS EEPROM memory;
  • efficiency of the analogue digital converter (ADC) of the RMS;
  • conversion frequency error of the RMS ADC;
  • correctness of the job assignment for the RMS ADC;
  • keeps statistic of the faults in the connection line to the DSC PS.

The diagnostic is done in the automatic mode and under the commands from the DSCPS. The results of diagnostic am transmitted to the DSCPS on demands.

CCM diagnostic functions

CCM micro controller carries out the diagnostic of the following:

  • CCM programs memory;
  • CCM EEPROM memory;
  • CCM non-volatile backing memory;
  • availability of the job for calibration of the accelerometers;
  • efficiency of the engine;
  • engine rotation speed;
  • oscillation frequency of the of the calibration platform;
    position of the platform under operation mode;
  • yields a "SELF TEST" signal for electronic test of the accelerometers.
  • keeps statistic of me faults in the connection line to the DSCPS.

The diagnostic is done in the automatic mode and under the commands from the DSCPS. The results of diagnostic are transmitted to the DSCPS on demands

DSCPS diagnostic functions

DSCPS micro controller carries out the diagnostic of the following:

  • DSCPS programs memory;
  • DSCPS data memory;
  • sends the commands for testing and calibration of the RMU (RMS and CCM);
  • requests the results of the diagnostic from RMU;
  • analyses the data of accelerometers and estimates their efficiency and calibration parameters;
  • analyses the efficiency of connection line with RMU;
  • keeps the statistic of the faults in the connection line to the DSCPS-M

The diagnostic is done in the automatic mode and under the commands from the DSCPS-M. The results of diagnostic are transmitted to the DSCPS-M on demands

DSCPS-M diagnostic functions

DSCPS-M micro controller carries out the diagnostic of the following:

  • DSCPS-M programs memory;
  • DSCPS-M data memory;
  • sends the commands for testing and calibration to all DSCPS;
    requests the results of the diagnostic from DSCPS;
  • analyses the efficiency of connection line with all DSCPS;
  • analyses the efficiency of the redundant DSCPS-M.
  • keeps the statistic of the faults in the connection line to the redundant DSCPS-M
    analyses the efficiency of the main and redundant controlling computer
  • keeps the statistic of the faults in the connection line to the main and redundant controlling
    computer;
  • analyses the efficiency of me connection line to the main and redundant controlling computer;
  • controls the regularity of the secondary power supply sources.

The diagnostic is done in the automatic mode and under the commands of the controlling computer.

The results of diagnostic are transmitted to the controlling computer on demand. In case of failure the DSCPS-M initiates the "Failure "signal to the PCS.

Controlling computer (CC) diagnostic functions

The CC carries out the diagnostic as following:

  • passes the job for caring out of the automatic diagnostic and calibration to the subordinate devices;
  • passes the job for caring out of the automatic diagnostic and calibration to the subordinate device on command from operator,
  • collects the results of diagnostic of all devices from DSCPS-M.
  • displays at the screen the status of all units.
  • registers in protocol the reports of all malfunctions and reestablishment of operation.
  • controls 3 levels of access to work with TIAMS by the systems of passwords.

All functions of diagnostic and data storage are carried out at the same time at the main and redundant controlling computer. The commands can be given from any of the controlling computers,

Laptop diagnostic functions

Laptop provides the possibility to do the autonomic diagnostic of the system modules (RMU, DSCPS, DSCPS-M) that are under repair or spared.

 

appdev_page2-eng_clip_image002.jpg

Fig. 1 TIAMS block diagram

 

RMU Technical Characteristics .

RMU technical characteristics are given in the table 3.

#.

Description

Value

1.

Number of orthogonal acceleration measuring axes

3

2.

Number of three-component accelerometers

3

3.

Amplitude range of the measured acceleration, m/s2

0,03…30,00

4.

Frequency range of the measured acceleration, Hz

0,1…10

5.

Numeralization capacity of the measured accelerations, bit

24

6.

Least significant Bit Average Weight at frequency of 1 Hz, m/s2

4,33 x 10-6 ± 10%

7.

Maximum sampling frequency of the measured accelerations, Hz

200

8.

Maximum information rate, Кbit/sec

115,2

9.

Interface type

RS-485

10.

Maximum length of the connection line to UCP, m

1200

11.

Voltage of the primary power-supply source, V.

9...30

12.

Power consumption under the measuring mode, not more than, Watt

2 5,0

13.

Power consumption under the calibration mode, not more than, Watt

35 ,0

14.

Overall dimensions, mm.

 

 

Length
632
Width
432
Height
335

15.

Weight, kg, not more than

65

16.

УService conditions*:

 

  • Temperature, ° С
от минус 40 до 55
  • Relative humidity, ambient temperature 35 ° С, %
95 ± 3
  • •  Atmospheric pressure, kPa

84-106,7

-Strength under the sinusoidal vibration impact of:

  • Frequency, Hz

10-55
  • Displacement amplitude, mm

0,15
- Impact resistance under the loads of mechanical impacts:
  • Multiple (duration 2-50 msec), m/s2
100
  • Single ( duration 0,5 – 30 msec) m/s2
150

17.

Continuous running time

неограничено

18.

Warranty assurance, month

24

19 .

Ingress Protection Rate according to the IEC 60529

IP 67

20.

Explosion – proof rate

1 ExdIIBT6

Tree – component accelerometers do the conversion of the current values of the accelerations into output voltage through three mutually perpendicular axes.

Each accelerometer has the self-testing and calibration devices.

The self-testing is based on the sensing device inertial mass position changing upon the command “Self-test” and under the impact of the electrostatic force that approximately equal to the 20% of the calibration measuring range (full scale). This is the way to check the efficiency of the overall mechanical structure and electric circuit of the accelerometer.

Electric motor with reducer, driving gear, calibration platform, platform position transducer and calibration control module form the calibration unit that provides the calibration mode under which the position of the calibration platform should be changed according to the assigned principle. Control on the calibration and self-testing of the three-component accelerometer is done by the Calibration Control Module that forms the “Self-Test” signal and drives the electric motor (sets in motion the calibration platform). The CP is intended for the placement, fastening and mutual orientation of tree Measuring Converter Modules. It is fixed at the bearings that installed at the platform supports. CP could change its position relatively to the long axis within the range of 0?…+45?. The moment that provides the oscillation movements of the platform revolving on its axis is passed by the crank- link mechanism that connects the drive shaft of the electric motor and CP. The oscillation frequency of the CP is equal to the value of the central frequency of the working range, which is 1,0 Hz. The Platform position transducer is used to provide the return of the platform to its starting (measuring) position. The signal of this transducer is used by CCM to control the operation of the electric motor.

The calibration of the accelerometer-measuring channel is based on the periodical (with the frequency of 1 Hz) changing of the initial accelerometer converters position. These initial accelerometer converters are included into the Measuring Converter Module that is placed at the CP. This method shows the changing of the gravitational acceleration projection to the sensor sensitive axis. Variations amplitude of this projection is about 0,15g (1,5 m/s2) and serves as the calibration constant. The value of the calibration constant is a reference value for the periodical calibration of the accelerometer measuring channels.

Two Remote Measuring Systems do the conversion of the output analog signals from the tree –component accelerometers into the digital code. Each RMS contains of Analog Digital Conversion Module and Micro-Controlling Module, which control the analog-digital conversion process, self-testing, receiving and transmission of the data.

The changing of the acceleration amplitude, testing and calibration are effected upon the commands from the UCP according to the operation software of TIAMS.

During the implementation of the contract TIAMS has received the following certificates:

  1. Permission for use from Rostekhnadzor
  2. EMC certificate
  3. Explosion proof certificate
  4. Type approval certificate for system elements (RMS, DSCPS, CCT-C, CCT-R)
  5. Type approval certificate for overall system is in process of issuing
  6. Type approval certificate for three-component accelerometer is in process of issuing
  7. IEG RAS has obtained Quality Management certificate ISO 9001.

Unified Automatic Equipment

From 1996 till 1998 IEG RAS Seismological center has developed Unified Automatic Equipment (UAE) working for Federal target program “Development of the Federal Seismic monitoring and earthquake forecast System, 1996-2000) to use it at the forecast grounds in the seismically dangerous regions of Russia.

Unified Automatic Equipment

1. Description and operation

1.1 UAE assignment

UAE is assigned to develop wide application diffused informational – measuring and controlling complexes. If such complexes are connected to radio telemetry channels they provide the possibility to create area-monitoring systems of different application including seismic, geophysical regional monitoring systems, systems of ecological monitoring, etc.

1.2 UAE content

The following devices are included into UAE:

  • Remote measuring system (RMS);
  • System for data storage, control and processing (DSCPS);
  • Cable Connection Terminal for filed conditions, central (CCT-C);
  • Cable Connection Terminal for filed conditions, remote (CCT-R).

1.2.1 Remote measuring system (RMS)

1.2.1.1 RMS assignment.

RMS is assigned to convert voltage signals coming from the geophysical channels' outputs into analog-digital signals.

 

RMS does the synchronization of the received information with the Integrated Time System, calibration of the geophysical channels, calibration of geophysical channels control on the operation of the own hardware and software, forms data arrays, stores data and transmits the registered and preprocessed data through the serial connection channel of the RS-485 type through CCT-C directly to the DSCPS. General view of RMS is given at the fig.1

1.2.1.2 RMS operation conditions:

RMS operates under temperature range from minus 30° С to +50° С . Humidity is not more than 98% under the temperature of + 25° С .

1.2.1.3 RMS technical features.

RMS technical features are given in the table 1.

Table 1

#

Parameters

Nominal Value

1.

Number of differential analog inputs

8

 

2.

Input range, for each channel:

-10 ? +10

3.

Input differential resistance , kOhm

not less than 20

 

 

 

4.

Reduction factor of the in-phase component, decibel, for each channel:

Not less than 60

5.

Interference, decibel, one channel into other (for all):

Not more than -100

6.

Number of the effective bytes of the ADC under sampling frequency of 200 Hz for each channel:

18

7.

ADC Least significant bit weight range, microvolts, for each channel * :

 

2,60 ± 0,10

 

8.

Absolute error of the whole range, mV, not more than

±1

9.

Temperature coefficient of ADC, %, ° C**

 

±0,006

10.

Sampling frequency of the ADC, Hz

minimum

 

maximum

 

Not more than 0,001

Not less than 200

11

Calibration signal source (DAC) output signal range

True output

Complementary output

 

0…4
-4 … 0

 

12

DAC bit number

12

13

DAC Least significant bit weight range, microvolts,

1

14

DAC limits of basic absolute accuracy, microvolts

±25

15

Temperature coefficient of DAC, %, ° C

±0,16

16

DAC output resistance, Ohm

52 ± 3

17

Load resistance, Ohm, not less

600

18.

Power consumption, Watt

Not more than 1,50

 

Note:

* For each RMS parameter is be determined during manufacturing and stated in RMS passport

** % of the measured value.

 

 

Общий вид ВИС
Fig. 1. RMS general view.

1.2.2. Description and operation of the DCSPS

1.2.2.1. DSCPS assignment .

DCSPS does the following:

  • Reception of information directly from RMS or from RMS through CCT-C;
  • Processing of received information;
  • Injection of commands through CCT-C or directly to RMS;
  • Synchronization of data with Common Time System;
  • Transmission of the processed information through radio communication channel (or through cable communication line) to Information processing Center (IPC);

DSCPS can operate under the following conditions:

  • Ambient temperature up to + 50° С ;
  • Ambient temperature up to minus 30° С ;
  • Relative humidity - 98 % under temperature + 25° С .

Общий вид СНУП
DSCPS general view

1.2.2.2. DSCPS technical features.

DSCPS technical features are given in the table 2.

 

Table 2.

Parameter

Value

Supply voltage

+24

Power consumption from 24 V dc source, not more than

3 W

Number of RS-485 com- ports

2

Time synchronization accuracy, msec

± 1

RAM, not less than

6 М bite

Data rate through serial ports, not more than

RS-485

 

115200 bit/s

Overall dimensions, mm

Length (with connectors)

Width

Height

 

264 ± 2

68 ± 2

136 ± 2

 

1.2.3. Cable Connection Terminal for filed conditions, central (CCT-C)

1.2.3.1.CCT-C assignment.

CCT-C is assigned to the following:

  1. To be used in informational- measuring and controlling complexes as a part of area-spread cable monitoring system of several kilometers square for provision of communication through serial duplex channel between DSCPS and CCT-R;
  2. To provide galvanic isolation of informational- measuring and controlling complexes communication lines components from the connection line.

CCT-C also can be used as the central monitor in an informational- measuring and controlling complex that provides tracing of the current time and initiation of DSCPS and other units therein according to set schedule.

When CCT-C is connected to DSCPS in computer or communication line it can turn on DSCPS and turn on/off any lines out of schedule under DSCPS commands.

CCT-C can operate under the following conditions:

  • Ambient temperature up to + 50° С ;
  • Ambient temperature up to minus 30° С ;
  • Relative humidity - 98 % under temperature + 25° С .

Acid or alkali vapors and any other aggressive dirt in the air are inadmissible.

1.2.3.2.CCT-C technical features.

Interface type- optically isolated RS-485. Information rate – up to 115200 bit/sec. Number of input lines depends on modification as shown in table 3.

Table 3.

Title

Number of input lines

CCT .10.00.00-01

1

CCT .10.00.00-02

2

CCT .10.00.00-03

3

CCT .10.00.00-04

4

CCT .10.00.00-05

5

CCT .10.00.00-06

6

CCT .10.00.00-07

7

CCT .10.00.00-08

8

CCT .10.00.00-09

9

CCT .10.00.00

10

Line length – up to 1200 m.
Primary power supply source voltage - 8...30 V.
Power consumption, Watt, not more than 1,0.
IP rate - IP65

1.2.4. Cable Connection Terminal for filed conditions, remote (CCT-R)

1.2.4.1.CCT-R assignment.

CCT-R is assigned to the following:

  1. To be used in informational- measuring and controlling complexes as a part of area-spread cable monitoring system with square of several kilometers for provision of communication through serial duplex channel between DSCPS and CCT-C;
  2. To provide galvanic isolation of informational- measuring and controlling complexes communication lines components from the connection line.
  3. CCT-C can operate under the following conditions:
  • Ambient temperature up to + 50° С ;
  • Ambient temperature up to minus 30° С ;
  • Relative humidity - 98 % under temperature + 25° С .

Acid or alkali vapors and any other aggressive dirt in the air are inadmissible.

1.2.4.2. CCT-R technical features.

Interface type: optically isolated RS-485. Information rate – up to 115200 bit/sec. Number of input lines depends on modification as shown in table 4.

 

Table 4.

Title

Number of input lines

CCT.20.00.00-01

1

CCT .20.00.00-02

2

CCT .20.00.00-03

3

CCT .20.00.00-04

4

CCT .20.00.00-05

5

CCT .20.00.00-06

6

CCT .20.00.00-07

7

CCT .20.00.00-08

8

CCT .20.00.00-09

9

CCT .20.00.00

10

Line length – up to 1200 m.
Primary power supply source voltage - 8...30 V.
Power consumption, Watt, not more than 1,0.
IP rate - IP65

 

Общий вид ТСКП-Ц и ТСКП-У
CCT-C and CCT-R general view

1.3. Informational- measuring and controlling complex (IMCC) based on UAE. Its structure and operation .

The sample of IMCC based on UAE (autonomous point of integrated geophysical monitoring) is shown at the fig. 1.

It includes the following units: UAE, DSCPS, CCT-C, CCT-R and RMS. Number of CCT-R and RMS depend on the objective of the IMCC. Types of measuring channels, their number and placement relatively to DSCPS, schedule of data acquisition are determined by main objective of the complex.

Fig. 1. shows that 9 cables lines are connected to CCT-C with CCT-R at their ends. Maximum length of cable is 1200 meters. Power goes through these cables from CCT-C to CCT-R. The cable line is protected with lightning protection devices that are installed in CCT-C and CCT-R.

Information interchange rate for CCT-C and CCT-R is 115 kbit/sec according to RS-485 protocol. 9 RMS can be connected to each of CCT-R and up to 8 analog-digital converters can be connected to each RMS.

Power to RMS is transmitted through CCT-R. The following restrictions shall be considered in design of IMCC based on UAE:

  1. Number of analog-digital channels in one system shall not be more than 72;
  2. Summary digital information recorded from all analog-digital converters of all RMSes included into one system shall not be more than 64 kbit/sec.

There are two operating modes of IMCC that are determined by recording and data acquisition modes:

  1. Information accumulation mode (Information is collected only during visits of the IMCC);
  2. Real-time recording mode (IMCCes are combined into regional or local monitoring system by means of radiotelemetering or cable communication lines. In this case information will be recorded in real time mode).

1.3.1 IMCC operation under Information accumulation mode.

In that case information will be stored in DSCPS main memory, which is 6 Mbytes.

Laptop shall be connected to DSCPS before measuring. A program to configure IMCC shall be run at this laptop to set schedule of inquires for measuring channels connected to RMS ADCes. CCT-C is also coded with this program (measuring channels turn on/off schedule).

Then special recording program shall be run. First it will test IMCC and then synchronize DSCPS time service and control module according to GPS signals. GPS is connected to the laptop . Then the laptop will be disconnected from DSCPS and IMCC will start autonomous recording of information according to assigned schedule.

According to that schedule CCT-C will send voltage to DSCPS and to measuring channels indicated by the program. DSCPS inquires all RMSes by turn (with time gap between each inquiry) then compacst information and forms packets of set format. These packets are stored in RAM. DSCPS synchronizes all RMSes under special commands.

DSCPS Operation software is coded in ROM and it is loaded after DSCPS is turned on or cleared. The software provides DSCPS operation as a main part of IMCC. It controls all connected RMS, stores and transmits measuring data to the laptop.

The software provides the following:

  • Initial self-testing of DSCPS and RMS status inquiry;
  • Receiving from the laptop and transmission to RMS test frequency for each ADC channel;
  • Time control and RMS time synchronization;
  • Simultaneous start of measuring in all RMS;
  • RMS inquiry, storing of measuring results;
  • Compacting and buffering of data;
  • Re-coding and start of RMS after power supply failure that resulted in RMS re-initialization;
  • Receiving from a laptop and transmission to RMS any random command in RMS-laptop interchange format and transmission of RMS response to a laptop;
  • Transmission of DSCPS memory data to a laptop, transmission from laptop data packets to DSCPS memory (including program loading) and transmission of the control command to assigned address that provides remote loading and running of tests or running of new version of DSCPS software.

RMS software consists of RMS microprocessor program (DS80C320) and programs for personal computer like IBM-PC that allow autonomous operation of RMS outside RMS-DSCPS complex.

Microprocessor program is placed in microprocessor's ROM or external ROM and provides the following:

  • Initial self- testing of RMS and its all ADCes;
  • Receiving of commands and their transmission through communication line (RS-485);
  • Transmission of system status and failures reports (system stays operative if some of ADC failed or disconnected);
  • Self coding of test frequency for each ADC channel (from 5 msec to 1 month frequency of measuring or turning off);
  • Measuring, storing and transmission of recorded data;
  • ADC efficiency control, disconnection of channel in case of ADC failure (the channel can be disconnected under command of external computer);
  • Operation from DAC: DAC will be connected to one of 8 channels under the command and output voltage will be changed according to assigned program);
  • Time service control: RMS monitors time with accuracy of 1 msec and transmits milliseconds counter together with ADC values from the moment of measuring.

RMS time service can be controlled and adjusted under the commands from external computer or DSCPS. It allows keeping time accuracy as ±1 msec during all time.

RMS-DSCPS or RMS- external computer interchange rate is 115,2 or 19,6 k baud ( switch is upon a command) and is always performed upon external computer initiative. Each RMS has its own address and responds only to the referenced commands. It is possible to connect up to 254 RMS to one line (some commands can be sent to all RMS at one time. RMS respond is not required in that case).

The system provides effective operation even if communication cable line has a malfunctioning. An interchange is performed with packets and each packet is accompanied with check sum. In case of interchange error the packet will be ignored. Measuring results are stored in RMS and are transmitted asynchronously.

An information form DSCPS can be read as follows: A laptop is connected to DSCPS and information is copied from main memory to hard disk. Testing and synchronization of IMCC will be performed at the same time.

1.3.2. IMCC operation in Data real-time recording mode.

To carry out recording in real time mode IMCC are combined into regional or local monitoring systems by means of high speed telemetric connection or cable communication line (see fig. 2).

In that case information is recorded by controlling computer in the Information-processing Center –IPC (see fig. 3) that controls operation of all IMCCes.

The number of IMCC included into monitoring system is restricted by hardware and software and can be not more than 16. Maximum interchange rate between IPC and all IMCC is restricted by throughput of communication system.

IPC controlling computer software is assigned to control IMCC equipment, finding out its failures, receiving data and information storing. It can be installed at IBM PC (PENTIUM based) with clock speed not less than 166 М Hz.

Operation of regional or local monitoring system based on IMCC is determined by configuration file that will be created by special program. This file considers availability of strategic monitoring points, types of geophysical channels, their parameters and availability of time synchronization facilities (GPS).

After start of the program it reads configuration of the overall local seismic (geophysical) monitoring system and synchronizes time according to Greenwich with accuracy up to decimals of msec and calculates corrections of computer quartz frequency to provide system functioning in case of short time failure of GPS. Time synchronization is done from GPS every second.

After synchronization it inquires, codes, synchronizes and starts equipment of some IMCC. The program inquires status of IMCCes equipment (operation status, availability of channels, channel operation status, etc.). In case of any problem report will be displayed at the screen (this report is also recorded in operation protocol file). Operation program for each measuring channel, frequency of inquiry and gain factor plus one program of intense movements channel operation including number of channel are transmitted to central controller of monitoring point. Before start each IMCC is synchronized with IPC computer time (then synchronization is performed each 10 sec). Time of signal transit from IPC to IMCC is also considered in synchronization procedure. After that DSCPS in IMCC starts collecting data from RMS.

IPC controlling computer cyclically inquires data from corresponding IMCC and records them into main memory buffers. After necessary data have been collected they are recorded into file that corresponds to channel type. Normally these files are stored at other computer and can be read through local network. Nevertheless for short-time experiments the system can be configured to use local disk of controlling computer. During short breaks of communication (not longer than 10 sec) data will not be lost due to DSCPS of each IMCC has large memory buffer. Operator can carry out calibration of any sensor of the system during its operation. In case of contingency (disconnection of communication with IMCC, its failure, failure of some channels or all RMS channels or restoration of all above) and under some normal modes like recording of events or sensor calibration the system will display report at the screen stating Greenwich time of event start, name of IMCC and channel name plus event description. The report is recorded into buffer of 100 lines size and into protocol file. Operator can check the buffer at any time.

1.3.3. IMCC real –time recording mode (2).

In that case IMCC is included into regional or local monitoring system that operates in real – time mode. Block diagram of IMCC based on UAE that operates in real- time recording mode is given at fig. 4.

Operating software of DSCPS is coded in ROM and will be started after turning on or clearing of DSCPS. This software is assigned to provide DSCPS functioning as a main part of IMCC (control of RMS, storing and transmission of data (reading of data in attendance mode) to IPC after processing.

Its functions are as follows:

  • Initial self- test of DSCPS and RMS status;
  • Receiving from IPC or laptop test frequency for each ADC channel and transmission of these data to RMS;
  • Time monitoring and synchronization of RMS time;
  • Start of simultaneous measuring in all RMSes;
  • RMS inquiry, storing of measuring results;
  • Data compression and buffering.

If IMCC is used for complex geophysical monitoring systems with sensitive seismic sensors and sensors of intensive movements DSCPS operational software provides the following:

  • Selection of intensive movement channels and storing their data for further transmission of event prehistory to IPC after detection of event;
  • Transmission of other channels' measuring results upon IPC request;
  • Calculation (in sliding window) of number of exceeding of the set threshold recorded by event identification channel;
  • Event processing: transmission of event report, its prehistory and report on time that has passed after event finish to IPC;
  • Receiving of program to change output voltage at DAC to perform sensors calibration from IPC and its transmission to RMS upon Operator's command;
  • RMS and ADC efficiency monitoring, reporting to IPC on equipment and communication failures, recoding and restart of RMS after power supply failure that results in re-initialization of RMS;
  • Receiving from IPC of random command in RMS – external computer interchange format, its transmission to RMS and transmission of RMS response to IPC;
  • Transmission of DSCPS memory to IPC, receiving of the packet for DSCPS memory form IPC (including loading of the program) and transmission of control to the assigned address that allows performing remote loading and running of tests or new version of DSCPS main software.

DSCPS time service can be control and adjusted upon commands from IPC, that includes GPS time signal receiver. It allows keeping time accuracy as ±1 msec during all time.

RMS provides the same functioning as a part of IMCC operating either in autonomous mode and controlled by DSCPS or as a part of IMCC included into regional or local monitoring system UAE is certificated by GOSTANDARD of RF.

Type approval certificate RU.C.34.004.A. No 13659 for information-measuring and controlling complexes based on Unified automatic equipment has been issued according to the decision of the Russian Federation State Committee on standards and metrology on 25.12.2002. The complexes were included into State register of measuring equipment under the No 23981-02 В .

Basing on this design Institute Departments have developed and delivered hazardous geological processes monitoring system to such big industrial enterprises like Russian – Turkey Gas pipeline, Soligorsk O re Mining and Processing Enterprise ( Republic of Belarus ) and Topsides Induced Monitoring System For Oil and Gas Offshore Platforms.

 

New developments

Gallery two-coordinate pendulum tilt meter, modified (GTCPT-M)

Gallery two-coordinate pendulum tilt meter hereinafter referred as tilt- meter has been designed in the Institute of Earth Physics , SU Academy of Sciences in the middle of 80th.

Initially this tilt-meter supposed to be a multipurpose device to carry out measuring and solve either basis physics tasks (study of geodynamic processes, tidal processes in solid Earth, etc) or practical geophysics problems in the fields of engineering geology, environmental geology, monitoring of different industrial, power, constructed, historical or other objects stability.

Above objectives can be achieved due to design characteristics of the instrument such as high sensitivity that allows monitoring with resolution of 0,1 angle msec or 5·10 -10 radian and big range that provides measuring of big tilts up to a few angle minutes ~ 3·10 -4 – 10 -3 radian.

Such high resolution of the tilt meter is important not only for basic problems but to solve different engineering tasks because it allows detecting anomalous deformations of object at an early stage and take necessary preventative measures.

The present design uses the old pendulum principle: cylindrical sample mass hanged on thin bronze thread forms the bob. Capacitate electronic inverter measures displacement of sample mass relatively to four electrodes placed concentrically around the mass under the tilt of the device.

IEG RAS staff together with Chief of the laboratory of Earth Physics Institute professor A.B. Manukin redesigned electronics of old device to improve its characteristics. Hardware of the prototype device has not been changed. New device is called GTCPT-M.

Tilt-meter is assigned for measuring of angle variation between normal line to the basement of the device and vector of gravity vertical.

The modified tilt-meter differs from the old one by capacitive transducer with new key elements that provided increase of the unit operation lifetime as well as sampling frequency. The tilt-meter has additional electronic unit that raises the quality of its functional characteristics. New electronic of GTCPT-M allows measuring according to assigned program in real –time mode with the possibility to record information directly to PC or to memory buffer for its further reading. Sampling frequency and GTCTP-M testing is adjusted by PC of IBM PC type. Special software has been developed to control tilt-meter operation considering different objectives.

Information from GTCPT-M can be read in two ways depending on objective of the device:

•  Continuous monitoring in real - time mode, for example to control complicated technical constructions. In that case data on tilts is recorded and displayed at PC with established sampling frequency.

•  Autonomous registration mode. Sampling frequency and synchronization schedule are established from the laptop. Then GTCPT will write information in internal memory of 1 Mbyte size. Recorded data will be downloaded to the laptop.

The table below contains of the technical features of GTCPT-M.

Chracteristic

Value

Ultimate sensitivity

5·10 -10 radian or 0,1 angle msec

Dynamic range

Not less than 120 decibel

Long-term [long-time] stability

Not worse than 5·10 -7 radian/month or 0,1 angle sec/month

Conversion efficiency

5·10 -10 radian/Hz or 0,1 angle sec/kHz

Installation points

Gallery, trench, cellar.

Distance from GTCPT-M to computer

а ) cable connection – up to 1200 m

б ) with repeater– without limits

Weight

8 kg

Dimensions

O 200 x 230 mm

Voltage

12 V

Power consumption

200 mWatt

Memory

1 Mbyte

General view of Gallery two-coordinate pendulum tilt meter, modified (GTCPT-M)

 

Underground waters automatic control system (UWACS)

1. UWACS assignment .

UWACS is assigned for continuous monitoring of hydro- geodynamic fields at large territory . It provides the possibility to control the following parameters:

  • Temperature of water in the hole
  • Water level in the hole;
  • Atmospheric pressure.

2. UWACS content.

The system consists of the following elements (fig. 1):

  • Underground waters control points (UWCP);

Information Processing Center (IPC).

 

UWCP provides conversion of the hydro-geodynamic field values into digital data by means of measuring converters; synchronization of received data with universal time system; control of its own hardware and software operation; forming of data arrays; data storing and transmission of recorded and processed data through GSM - modem to Information Processing Center upon corresponding request.

UWCP has means to control failures of the equipment and illegal access to it and to send alarm reports to IPC.

3. IPC content operation.

The following hardware and software are included into IPC:

  • IBM PC;
  • Mobile telephone with USB cable;
  • Software for IPC.

IPC hardware and software provide the following:

  • UWCP managing;
  • Recording of data received from UWCP;
  • Storing of recorded and processed results.

4. UWCP content .

The following elements are included into UWCP (fig. 4.1):

  • Hydro-geodynamic fields data recording complex (HGFDRC);
  • Data acquisition and transmission Unit (DATU);
  • Power supply source;
  • Cables .

4.1. UWCP technical features.

4.1.1.Technical features of Data acquisition and transmission Unit (DATU).

DATU technical features are given in the table below:

Parameter

Value

DATU voltage

+12 ± 3V

DATU power consumption shall not be more than:

  • For data storing mode
  • Data transmission mode

 

  • 1.5 Watt
  • 3.5 Watt

Number of independent serial ports

  • Com- port RS-485
  • Com-port RS-232
  • Com- port for GSM-modem

Pool memory size not less than

512 Kbyte

Bit rate through serial com- ports, not more than:

  • RS-232 com-port
  • GSM-modem com-port
  • RS-485 com-port

 

  • 9600 bit / sec
  • 9600 bit/sec
  • 115200 bit/sec

Synchronization accuracy of DATU shall be not more than

±1 sec

Overall dimensions, mm

  • Length (with connectors)
  • Width
  • Height
  • 268 ± 2
  • 192 ± 2
  • 75 ± 2

Weight , not more than

2 kg

DATU is installed in the enclosure with IP 65. This enclosure is of shockproof polymer with protection from moisture and dust. Special crates are foreseen inside enclosure to mount component units. DATU components (PM and CM) are assembled units of 192х130 mm size (fig. 4.2).

Output and input connectors are placed at the front panel of DATU. Fastening elements of connectors are covered with waterproof seal 6 В ТУ 6-01-2-370-74. Seal ring of soft rubber provides sealing of the cover. DATU has a possibility to connect different antennas of GSM- modem to improve quality of mobile connection.

Fig . 4. DATU in enclosure with antenna.

 

Fig. 5. DATU units without enclosure.

4.1.2. Hydro-geodynamic fields data recording complex (HGFDRC).

HGFDRC power supply is from eternal source (dc voltage 9?16 V), average power consumption is not more than 300 mWatt.

HGFDRC operates under the following conditions:

  • Full diving to 10 m depth;
  • Water temperature changing from 0 to +50 ° С ;
  • Atmospheric pressure changing from 820 to 1100 GigaPa.

HGFDRC provides measuring of level variations, water temperature and atmospheric pressure changes as per table 1.2.2.

Table 1.2.2.

Parameter

Parameter measuring range

Resolution

Accuracy

Level, mm

0-10000

1

± 10 (within temperature range)

Temperature , ° С

0-50

±0,05

±0,05

Atmospheric pressure, Giga Pa

820-1100

0,05

±0,5

 

Fig. 6. Hydro-geodynamic fields data recording complex (HGFDRC).