"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 3, 2011

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 3, 2011

 

Large-scale geological mapping of the Moscow territory
V. I. Osipov
195
EXPERIENCE IN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM ON "COMPILING THEMATIC LARGE-SCALE GEOLOGICAL MAPS OF MOSCOW"
Geoinformatic technologies for the large-scale geological mapping of Moscow
О. К. Mironov
198
Assessment of karst and karst-suffosion hazard in the project of large-scale geological mapping of Moscow territory
V. M. Kutepov, I. V. Kozlyakova, N. G. Anisimova, O. N. Eremina, and I. A. Kozhevnikova
215
Zoning of the geological environment in Moscow for the construction of buildings with deep foundations
V. I. Osipov, V. M. Kutepov, N. G. Anisimova, I. A. Kozhevnikova, and I. V. Kozlyakova
227
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Formation conditions and natural state of the hydrothermal system in Geysers Valley(Kronotsky Reserve, Kamchatka)
A. V. Kiryukhin and T. V. Rychkova
238
Influence of subsurface water use for feeding lakes that cool reactor blocks at the Kalinin nuclear power plant on the water balance variation
M. V.Belyakov
254
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Bioindication of water and bottom sediment pollution in the Kondopozhskaya Bay of Lake Onezhskoe
T. M. Timakova, and T. A. Chekryzheva
265
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Physico-chemical computer modeling of the water-rock systems as a method of predicting borehole plugging
B. N. Ryzhenko, M. G. Spiridonov, and A. Yu. Vavichkin
274
JUBILEES
Regina Eduardovna Dashko
 
287

 

GEOINFORMATIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE LARGE-SCALE GEOLOGICAL MAPPING OF MOSCOW
О. К. Mironov

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy
of Sciences Ulansky per. 13, bid 2. Moscow, 101000 Russia,
E-mail : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Geoinformatic tools for geological and environmental large-scale map design are discussed. The paper describes the practical geoinformatical support for large-scale geological mapping of Moscow. The in­formation system for geological mapping has been developed. The technological process of compiling maps is described.

Key words: borehole database, geological mapping, geoinformation technology, system analysis, map design, GIS, engineering geological zoning.

ASSESSMENT OF KARST AND KARST-SUFFOSION HAZARD IN THE PROJECT OF LARGE-SCALE GEOLOGICAL MAPPING OF MOSCOW TERRITORY
V. M. Kutepov, I. V. Kozlyakova, N. G. Anisimova, O. N. Eremina,
and I. A. Kozhevnikova

Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulanskiiper. 13, bid.2, Moscow, 101000 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper discusses the results of compiling a map of karst and karst-suffosion hazard for the territory of Moscow to a scale 1 : 10 000 by the experts of 1EG RAS according to the task given by the Moscow Government. The geological map of special purpose is built for the first time to this scale for the entire territory of Moscow (1100 sq. km) including regions lying outside the Moscow ring road. The map based on processing of more than 25 000 boreholes permitted us to broaden and specify significantly our knowledge on the distribution of zones of different karst and karst-suffosion hazard, which is neces­sary for assessing natural hazard and risk caused by the occurrence of karstified carbonate deposits in Moscow. In assemblage with other maps in the set, this map is useful for making recommendations at the early stages of surface and subsurface construction development in Moscow.

Key words: karst-suffosion hazard, distribution of ancient karst forms, buried river valley, large-scale geological mapping, assessment of natural hazard and risk.

ZONING OF THE GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT IN MOSCOW FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS WITH DEEP FOUNDATIONS
V. I. Osipov, V. M. Kutepov, N. G. Anisimova, I. A. Kozhevnikova,
and I. V. Kozlyakova

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulansky per. 13, bid. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper states that safe and economically efficient development of Moscow subsurface should be per­formed taking into account the geoenvironment specifics. The procedure of territory zoning is developed, which is based on the analysis of geological and hydrogeological conditions in the city, fitting the re­quirements for safe isolation of construction pits from groundwater. The criteria are suggested for distin­guishing favorable, conventionally favorable and unfavorable sites for the construction of buildings with foundations to a certain depth. This procedure was approved at the construction site of the Moscow City International Business Centre. The assessment maps were built for the depths of 5, 10, 20, and 30 m. This approach permits comparing the economic efficiency of digging construction pits to different depths.

Key words: subsurface, geological environment, criteria of assessing difficulty, zoning.

FORMATION AND NATURAL STATE OF THE HYDROTHERMAL
SYSTEM IN GEYSERS VALLEY (KRONOTSKY RESERVE, KAMCHATKA)
A. V. Kiryukhin and T. V. Rychkova

Institute of Volcanology and Seismology,
Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, bul. Piipa 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky,
683006 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The hydrothermal system in the Geysers Valley is hosted within a system of radial faults, located above a partially melted magmatic body and recharged by meteoric water along the Uzon-Geyzernaya cal-dera rim. Fast erosion stimulates the significant discharge rate, the geyser's cycling mode and landslide events. The Giant landslide took place on June 3, 2007, when 20 mln cubic m3 of rocks were shifted 2 km downstream and 23 geysers were buried. Possible triggers of the Giant Landslide include the inclination of the sliding plane towards the Geysernaya river basin, a pressure increase in the fluid-magma system, hanging block saturation by water during spring flooding, hydrothermal alteration of the sliding plane, and steam explosions. Three years of monitoring the two key geysers' cycling parameters (Velikan and Bolshoy), Podprudnoe Lake level and thermal discharge from the lake yield to the following results: the average time period of cycling for the Velikan geyser during the entire observation time is 348 min, the maximum time period observed is 32 hours during heavy snowfall; the average thermal discharge esti­mated by chloride method at 263 kg/s is characterized by the seasonal variations with more than 40% decline during spring-summer flooding.

Key words: geyser, hydrothermal, magmatic, landslide, Kamchatka.

INFLUENCE OF SUBSURFACE WATER USE FOR FEEDING LAKES THAT COOL REACTOR BLOCKS AT THE KALININ NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ON THE WATER BALANCE VARIATION
M.V. Belyakov

HYDEC Hydrogeological and Geoecological Company 15-ya Parkovaya ul. 10 a, Moscow, 105203 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The designed temperature mode at the reactor blocks of nuclear power plants (NPP) is maintained by natural or artificial cooling water reservoirs. Natural lakes Pesvo and Udomlia are used as coolers at the Kalinin NPP. Because of watershed position of this NPP, the surface water resources are not enough for reactor cooling in warm seasons. The water volume reduces sharply in the cooling reservoirs due to in­tense evaporation; and the water temperature exceeds the admissible level. The use of low-temperature subsurface water is one of the ways for recharging the cooling lakes. However, pumping subsurface water connected to the surface water may change the water balance due to the reduction or even full stop of subsurface runoff to rivers and lakes.

Key words: Kalinin nuclear power plant, replenishment of cooling lakes, combined use of subsurface and surface water, subsurface runoff balance.

BIOINDICATION OF WATER AND BOTTOM SEDIMENT POLLUTION IN THE KONDOPOZHSKAYA BAY OF LAKE ONEGO
N. M. Kalinkina, T. P. Kulikova, I. A. Litvinova, T. N. Polyakova, M. T. Syarki, E. V. Tekanova, T. M. Timakova, and T. A. Chekryzheva

Institute of Northern Water Problems, Karelian Research Center,
Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. A.Nevskogo 50, Petrozavodsk, 185003 Russia,
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The situation on the Kondopozhskaya Bay of Lake Onego polluted by the waste water of pulp-and-paper mill is discussed. The dynamics of waste-water discharge is traced, which has been varying widely during the last 80 years due to the changes in the pulp-and-paper production technology. The close connection between the water community's parameters and physicochemical characteristics of water is proved. It is shown that plankton and benthos communities are the reliable indicators of pollutant diffusion in water and accumulation in the bottom sediments. The indices of water and bottom pollution are calculated, which include biological and physicochemical data. These indices may be used for outlining zones of water and bottom sediment pollution in Lake Onego under the conditions of pulp-and-paper waste water discharge.

Key words: bioindication, biological communities, pollutants, pulp-and-paper industry, Lake Onego.

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL COMPUTER MODELING OF THE WATER-ROCK SYSTEM AS A METHOD OF PREDICTING BOREHOLE PLUGGING
B. N. Ryzhenko*, M. G. Spiridonov**, and A. Yu. Vavichkin**

* Vernadskii institute of geochemistry and analytical chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Kosygina 19, Moscow, 119991 Russia;
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
**Hydrogeological and geoecological company HYDEC,
15th Parkovaya ul. 10A, Moscow, 105203 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Physico-chemical computer modeling of hydrogeochemical processes was performed for closed and open in respect to CO2 and O2 "water-carbonate deposits" systems at 10-40 °C. It is shown that transformation in the Eh-pH water conditions due to water mixing as well as temperature change is the reason for iron hydroxide deposition upon pumping subsurface water from the C2pd-mc horizon to C3^ksm horizon. To keep iron in the dissolved state, it is recommended: a) to raise the content of organic acids complexing with Fe2+; and b) to lower pH by adding hydrochloric acid (1 mg/1). Pumping carbon dioxide (600 mg/1) permits dissolving the iron hydroxide sediment; however, it may cause siderite deposition.

Key words: plugging boreholes, water-bearing deposits, subsurface water, mixing water, equilibrium state, iron deposition.