"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 4, 2011

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 4, 2011

 

Nanofilms of adsorbed water in clay: mechanism of formation and properties
V.I.Osipov
291
Experience in Implementation of the Program on Compiling Thematic Geological Large-Scale Maps of Moscow
Large-scale (detailed) map of engineering geological zoning of Moscow territory
V. I. Osipov, V. N. Burova, V. G. Zaikanov, I. I. Molodykh, V. A. Pyrchenko, and I. S. Savisko
306
Seismic microzoning into districts of Moscow for high-rise construction
V. V. Sevostjanov, I. G. Mindel, B. A. Trifonov, N. A. Ragozin, O. A. Schpektorova
319
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Technological cycles of environment transformation
B. N. Luzgin
328
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Contamination of groundwater and unsaturated zone deposits with oil products and PAH in urban areas
I. V. Galitskaya and I. A. Pozdnyakova
337
GEOENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN URBANIZED TERRITORIES
Theory and practice of geoecological mapping in urbanized areas
V. G. Zaikanov, T. B. Minakova, M. A. Patrenkov, and A. E. Ryabenko
344
NATURAL AND HUMAN-INDUCED PROCESSES
Landslides as one of the factors of natural and technogenic risk in the territory of Irkutsk
N. I. Dem'yanovich
354
Experience in assessing pseudokarst intensification in loess (by the example of Javan valley, Tadjikistan)
A. A. Lavrusevich and S. A. Lavrusevich
362
SOIL AND ROCK ENGINEERING
Elastic-anisotropic properties of rocks in the lower part of the Outokumpu investigation drill hole cross-section in Finland
M. V. Kovalevskii, F F. Gorbatsevich, and О. М. Trishina
370
JUBILEES
Aleksei Sergeevich Viktorov (to the 60th birthday)
 
383

 

 

NANOFILMS OF ADSORBED WATER IN CLAY: MECHANISM OF FORMATION AND PROPERTIES
V. I. Osipov

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences Ulansky per., 13, bld 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The process of water molecules adsorption by silicate surface of clay minerals is described, which leads to the formation of adsorbed water films of nano-size thickness. The epitaxial mechanism of nanofilm formation is considered, which consists in the growth of structured hydrate layers under the influence of oxygen and hydroxyl surfaces of clay minerals. The difference in sizes of hexagonal cells of the solid surface and the formed water film deforms hydrogen bonds and produces inner stress both in the film structure and in the mineral lattice. The latter is registered by the changing size of montmorillonite cell along the b axis. The thickness of the formed adsorption water layer is shown to be controlled by the degree of hydrogen bond deformation, the value of developed stress inside the nanofilm, the cell size, and the rigidity (strength) of the mineral structure. The deformation of hydrogen bonds and water nanofilm structure determines its specific properties, i.e., disjoining pressure, high viscosity, low temperatures of water freezing and dielectric conductivity.

Key words: adsorption, wetting heat, adsorbed water molecules, adsorbed film thickness, epitaxy, the phenomenon of surface pseudomorphism, regularities of water nanofilm formation, nanofilm properties.

LARGE-SCALE (DETAILED) MAP OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL ZONING OF MOSCOW TERRITORY
V.I. Osipov, V.N. Burova, V.G. Zaikanov, I.I. Molodykh, V.A. Pyrchenko,
and I.S. Savisko

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences Ulansky per. 13, bld. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper presents the results of large-scale engineering geological zoning of Moscow territory, carried out in accordance with the Moscow Government Order "On the development of thematic large-scale geo­logical maps of Moscow territory". The map of engineering geological zoning is a result of integration of data on geodynamic, geomorphological, and geological structure; hydrogeological conditions; and distribution of natural hazards, geological processes and phenomena. The map is based on the principle of consistent typological division of the territory into four taxonomic levels using the index designation method for taxa of different rank.

Key words: engineering geological zoning, megamassifs, macromassifs, mesomassifs, engineering geo­logical massifs, complexity categories.

SEISMIC MICROZONING INTO DISTRICTS OF MOSCOW FOR HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION
V. V. Sevostjanov, I. G. Mindel, B. A. Trifonov, N. A. Ragozin and O. A. Schpektorova

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences Ulanskii per. 13, bld.2, Moscow, 101000 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Short data on displays of earthquakes from a zone of Vranch in Moscow are resulted, and the seismic danger from these earthquakes for high-rise construction is underlined. The factors influencing intensity of earthquakes from East Carpathians are analyzed; and the methodical base for drawing up a map of seismic microzoning into districts of Moscow territory for high-rise buildings is stated. The engineering approach to calculating quantitative characteristics of seismic impact for high-rise construction is offered.

Key words: seismicity, seismic microzoning, seismic impact, high-rise construction.
TECHNOLOGICAL CYCLES OF ENVIRONMENT TRANSFORMATION
B. N. Luzgin

AltaiStateUniversity, ul. Lenina, 61, Barnaul, 656009 RussiaE-mail: luzgin@geo.asu.ru

The author considers technological aspects in the influence of technogenic systems on the environment; distinguishes some features of their basic difference; and suggests systematizing ecological events in the radical transformation of natural ecosystems. Novelty of the given technologic-ecological approach to the study of these transformations consists in the search for generalizing characteristics typical of various industrial technologies. The deep and cardinal essence of technological transformations in the environ­ment is shown forcing us to pay special attention to their research priority.

Key words: technology, technological cycles, technological transformations, technogenic systems, tech­nogenic contamination.

CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER AND UNSATURATED ZONE DEPOSITS WITH OIL PRODUCTS
AND PAH IN URBAN AREAS
I.V. Galitskaya and I.A. Pozdnyakova

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ulanskii per. 13, bld.2, Moscow, 101000 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The approach to assessing hazard produced by the deposits in the unsaturated zone as a secondary source of groundwater contamination with oil products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is con­sidered by the example of ecological and geochemical investigations of soils, unsaturated zone deposits, groundwater, and snow, which were carried out upon the water environment rehabilitation in Lefortovo Park in Moscow. The impact of the primary contamination sources is analyzed, and the peculiarities of groundwater and soil contamination with oil products and PAH are regarded. To reveal the role of unsaturated zone as a secondary source of ground- and surface water contamination upon the possible liquidation of primary sources, we calculated the migration of oil products (benzene and toluene) and PAH (pyrene) in the unsaturated zone using the WHI UnSat Suite Plus software.

Key words: groundwater, unsaturated zone, contamination, oil products, benzene, toluene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, infiltration, migration, sorption, calculation of moisture- and mass-transfer.

THEORY AND PRACTICE OF GEOECOLOGICAL MAPPING IN URBANIZED AREAS
V.G. Zaikanov*, T.B. Minakova*, M.A. Patrenkov*, and A.E. Ryabenko**

* Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences
Ulansky per. 13, bld. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

** ZAO "Shaneco group", ul. Moskvorechie 4, bid. 3, Moscow, 115522 Russia;
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper deals with theoretical and methodological principles of geoecological mapping in urbanized areas, approved by the example of a town in the European part of Central Russia. The urbanized landscape plots (natural landscape functional and planning bodies) are taken as objects of geoecological mapping. They are distinguished on the basis of equal negative consequences of interaction in the "nature - human being" system. Two ways of geoecological assessment mapping are proposed, i.e., (a) the traditional combination of basic quality assessment maps and (b) computerized mapping based on quantitative index of geoecological damage. Geoecological mapping and assessment were performed using GIS technology. The geoecological maps of urban areas may be used for working out measures on rational land use and optimizing urban planning and territory management.

Key words: geoecological mapping, "nature— human being" system, geoecological damage, urban landscape area, geoecological assessment, urbanized area.

LANDSLIDES  AS  ONE  OF  THE  FACTORS  OF  NATURAL AND TECHNOGENIC RISK
IN  THE  TERRITORY  OF  IRKUTSK
N.I. Dem'yanovich

Institute of the Earth s Crust, Siberian division, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Lermontova 128, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The examples of landslide assessment are given as one of the factors controlling the present-day geoen-vironmental conditions in Irkutsk. To validate this process assessment, the specific features of landslide development are considered for the slopes surrounding the urban area and incised in the coal-bearing Ju­rassic deposits. The data are provided on the variation in the humidity of clay soils of the deluvial mantle on high river terraces in relation to their liability to "latent" underflooding. The possibility of landslide development is predicted in the frontal parts of these terraces, where water-saturated clay deposits, un­stable to dynamic effects, become very hazardous.

Key words: slopes, landslides, terraces above the floodplain, technogenesis, underflooding, risk, hazard.

EXPERIENCE IN ASSESSING PSEUDOKARST INTENSIFICATION
IN LOESS (BY THE EXAMPLE OF JAVAN VALLEY, TADJIKISTAN)
A. A. Lavrusevich* and S. A. Lavrusevich**

* State University of Civil Engineering, Yaroslavskoe sh. 26, Moscow, 129337 Russia;

** Moscow pedagogical state university,
Mal. Pirogovskaja ul. 1, Moscow, 119435 Russia;
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


The paper characterizes the conditions of loess pseudokarst development in Tadjikistan, where this pro­cess is widespread due to the intense technogenesis. It is shown that overmoistening of loessial depos­its that were formed and stayed for a long time under the relatively stable physico-geographical condi­tions, is the principal reason for the active development of loess pseudokarst. An attempt is made to give the aerial assessment of pseudokarst intensification for the irrigated Javan valley in Tadjikistan. The map of Javan valley affection by loess pseudokarst is compiled, with the maximally damaged sites, i.e., pseudokarst bedland, being distinguished in particular.

Key words: loess, loessial deposits, pseudokarst, loessial pseudokarst, Javan valley, Tadjikistan.

ELASTIC-ANISOTROPIC PROPERTIES OF ROCKS IN THE LOWER PART OF THE FINNISH INVESTIGATION DRILLHOLE CROSS-ECTION
M. V. Kovalevskii, F. F. Gorbatsevich, and О. М. Trishina

Geological Institute, Kola Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fersmana 14,
Apatity, Murmansk oblast, 184209 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The Outokumpu investigation drill hole was drilled near the depleted polymetallic deposit (Outokumpu, Finland) in 2005. The studied part of the drill hole section (1000—2516 m) is composed of black schist, biotite gneiss, serpentinite and pegmatite granite. The rock samples from the drill hole show elastic-anisotropic properties and belong to the orthorhombic type of elastic symmetry. The compression and shear wave velocities vary significantly with depth. The rock density slightly changes with depth.

Key words: physical properties of rocks, stress-strain properties of massif, transmission elastic waves in solids, acoustopolariscopy method, Finnish investigation drill hole cross-section, elastic-anisotropic properties of rocks.