Environmental Geoscience journal

"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 2, 2012

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 2, 2012

 

Victor Ivanovich Osipov (to the 75th birthday)   99
Harmonization of Russian and foreign standards on classification of soils
V. I. Osipov, F. S. Karpenko, R. G. Kalbergenov, and V. N. Kutergin
102
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Genetic aspects of deep hydrosphere formation as the basis of combined development of hydrothermal resources in the Eastern CisCaucasus
M. K. Kurbanov and L. M. Kurbanova
126
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
The influence of atmospheric emissions from Konakovo power station on snow cover in the region of Ivan'kovskoe water reservoir
E. S. Grishantseva, N. S. Safronova, and N. V. Kirpichnikova
135
UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE
Geoecological model of the area of nonmilitary underground nuclear explosion "Kristall" (Yakutia)
S. Yu. Artamonova, L. G. Bondareva, E. Yu. Antonov, and N. O. Kozhevnikov
143
SOIL AND ROCK ENGINEERING
Thermal expansion coefficient as a characteristic of frozen ground
V. P. Merzlyakov
159
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Methods and results of determining the emanation coefficients for clay soils in Tomsk
N. K. Ryzhakova, G. A. Ramenskaya
168
CHRONICLE
International Scientific Conference "Environmental Geosciences and Engineering Survey for Territory Protection and Population Safety" (ENGEOPRO-2011)
V.I. Osipov, O. N. Eremina
111
BOOK REVIEW
Review of the monograph "Biosphere Compatibility. Technologies and Implementation of Innovations. Cities Developing People" by V.A. IPichev
V.I. Osipov
183
About the content and value of the monograph "Loessial soils in Uzbekistan"
V. T. Trofimov
185
JUBILEES
Sergei Nikolaevich Chernyshov (to the 75th birthday) 187
Aleksandr Dmitrievich Potapov (to the 65th birthday) 188
Rules for authors  190

 

HARMONIZATION OF RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN STANDARDS ON CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS
V. I. Osipov, F. S. Karpenko, R. G. Kalbergenov, and V. N.Kutergin

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences
Ulanskii per. 13, bld. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia.
E-mail: direct@geoenv. ru

The paper studies the possible harmonization of the Russian standard of soil classification (GOST 25100) with American (ASTM D 2487) and European (ISO 14688) standards. Difficulties are shown in the direct correlation between classification items obtained from different soil standards. The possible methods of soil composition correlation are proposed based on the particle-size (sieve) analysis and plasticity indi­ces. The soil names used in different systems are correlated. Proceeding from the data obtained, the au­thors suggest the possible option of harmonization between Russian and foreign classifications of soils.

Key words: harmonization, coarse-fragmental soils, coarse-grain soils, sandy soils (sand), fine soils (clay and silt), organo-mineral soils, lithificated clay, plasticity diagram.

GENETIC ASPECTS OF DEEP HYDROGEOSPHERE FORMATION
AS THE BASIS OF COMBINED DEVELOPMENT
OF HYDROTHERMAL RESOURCES
IN THE EASTERN CISCAUCASUS
M. K. Kurbanov and L. M. Kurbanova

Institute of Geology, Dagestan Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Yaragskogo 75,
Makhachkala,367030 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The regularities in the formation of thermal mineral rare-metal brines and crustal hydrogeosphere are considered proceeding from the long-term geological and hydrogeological studies. The former results from mantle degassing and thermal metamorphism of the sedimentary layer in the Alpine tectonic zone and the Scythian epi-Hercynian platform in the Northern Caucasus and Caspian region.


Key words: artesian basin, underground water, geothermal conditions, hydrothermal water.

THE INFLUENCE OF ATMOSPHERIC EMISSIONS FROM KONAKOVO POWER STATION ON SNOW COVER IN THE IVAN'KOVSKOE
WATER RESERVOIR REGION
E.S. Grishantseva*, N.S. Safronova*, N.V. Kirpichnikova**

* Geochemistry Department, Geological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorob 'evy gory,
Moscow, 119991 Russia.E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** Institute of Water Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Gubkina 3, Moscow, 119992 Russia

The distribution of microelements (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, and Zn) was studied in the snow cover in the region of Ivankovskoe water reservoir. The solid and liquid phases of snow samples were analyzed separately. The investigation of heavy metal distribution in the snow cover near the Konakovo power station allowed us to determine the influence of this source of atmospheric emissions on the environment contamination in the Volga River region.

Key words: microelements, snow samples, Ivan 'kovskoe water reservoir, solid and liquid phases of snow, ecological  geochemistry.

GEOECOLOGICAL MODEL OF "KRISTALL" PEACEFUL UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSION AREA (YAKUTIA)
S. Yu. Artamonova, L.G. Bondareva, E.Yu. Antonov, and N.O. Kozhevnikov

Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch RAS pr. akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
A geotechnogenic system "a cavity of underground nuclear explosion — the enclosing geological envi­ronment - surface ecosystems" is considered by the example of "Kristall" peaceful underground nuclear explosion (PUNE) area (Russia, Yakutia).

New data on radioactive pollution of surface- and groundwater are obtained. Geophysical transient elec­tromagnetic sounding (time-domain electromagnetic sounding method, TDEM) is applied to two profiles above the PUNE epicenter. The revealed geoelectric layers on flanks of the profiles conform to a geologi­cal structure of the area. Under the explosion epicenter, a local geotechnogenic anomaly, i.e., a sharp rise in the brine aquifer's levels by 260—300 m, is registered spreading to the cavity of PUNE. Mining of "Udachnaya" kimberlite pipe 3.5 km to a southwest of "Kristall" PUNE area has disturbed the "PUNE cavity — geological environment" system. Upon deepening and drying of open cast, a great depression cone was formed around the open cast. Radioactive underground brine flew to this depression from the explosion zone, mixing up there with brines from the underlying horizons. Brines from the ca­reer were pulled into tailing dumps and injected under the ground. The ecological risk is connected with possible pollution of an environment at a drainage of tailing dumps and at infiltration of underground water from burial ground disposal of brines through fractured zones of tectonic faults.

Key words: peacefulundergroundnuclearexplosion (PUNE), Yakutia, geotechnogenicsystem, radio-geoecology, geologicalenvironment, permafrost, undergroundwater, cryopeg, brine, radionuclides, tri­tium, transientelectromagneticsoundingmethod, modeling, ecologicalrisk.

THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT
 AS A CHARACTERISTIC OF FROZEN GROUND
V. P. Merzlyakov

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulansky per. 13, bid. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper shows that the thermal expansion coefficient is necessary for the construction of the part of the frozen-ground rheological model that is associated with temperature deformation. Its numerical values can be used in the analysis of frost cracking and allied issues. The thermal expansion coefficient is a use­ful "structure-sensitive" characteristic of frozen ground. The principal features of the thermal expansion coefficient of the frozen ground are described. The methods and results of its study are discussed. The equation of system state containing the thermal expansion coefficient for the deformation process which is close to equilibrium is given. The inside phenomena in a frozen soil sample are indicated, which ac­company the "external" heat exchange between sample and the environment. These phenomena influence the value of the thermal expansion coefficient. A nonequilibrium process of "thermocreep" is considered. The equation expressing instantaneous strain by means of instantaneous temperature and its history is given. However, the functions of "thermocreep" defined in real experiment depend not only on frozen ground properties but also on the scheme and heat exchange parameters of experimental installation.


Key words: frozen ground, temperature, strain, internal energy, thermodynamic potential, the equilib­rium and nonequilibrium processes, the relaxation time, "thermocreep ".

METHODS AND RESULTS OF DETERMINING THE EMANATION COEFFICIENTS FOR CLAY SOILS OF TOMSK
N. K. Ryzhakova, G. A. Ramentskaya

Tomsk polytechnic university, pr. Lenina, 30,
Tomsk, 634050 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Methods and results of measuring the emanation coefficients for the fine clay soils in Tomsk were ana­lyzed. It is proved that both the meaning and the value of emanation coefficient depend on the applied measurement method. It is concluded that the emanation coefficient used as an effective parameter in the modeling of radon transfer through soils must quantitatively describe not only the emanation process, but also the exchange processes developing in different soil phases upon the radon diffusion. A field method for determination of emanation coefficients offered by the authors has been tested. The method is based on measurement of radon pore activity at two depths with twofold difference. On the basis of the results obtained from the emanation method, the dependence of emanation coefficients of clay soils on moisture has been studied.


Key words: radioactive gas radon, radon transport, radon pore activity, emanation coefficient, specific activity of clay soils, measurement methods of emanation coefficients.