Environmental Geoscience journal

"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 3, 2012

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 3, 2012

Inorganic carbon dissolved in the ocean and climate
P. N. Makkaveev
197
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Geocryological problems in Srednebotuobinskoe gas field (the Western Yakutia)
M. M. Shuts
205
Environmental assessment of hydrogeosphere disturbance upon underground mining
Yu. P. Galchenko and G. V. Sabyanin
214
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Transformation of soils in the permafrost-taiga conditions in the area of gas-condensate field development
I. A. Belozertseva
221
UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE
Study of sorption properties of the mechanically treated serpentine with respect to Cu(II) cation
E. V. Kalinkina, A. M. Kalinkin, T. N. Vasil'eva, S. I. Mazukhina, and A. T. Belyaevskii
229
NATURAL AND HUMAN-INDUCED PROCESSES
Influence of natural convection on stabilization of contamination plume in natural traps at underground disposal of liquid waste
V. I. Mal'kovskii and А. А. Рек
237
Identification of technogenic sources by the character of acoustic signals
V. I. Frantsuzova
245
Massifs of inwash fill soils as a source of technogenic hazards
S. K. Nikolaeva, E. N. Ogorodnikova, and T. V. Andreeva
256
SOIL AND ROCK ENGINEERING
Role of microstructure in clay emanation
P. S. Miklyaev, T. B. Petrova, V. M. Makeev, A. I. Kazeev, O. A. Petrova
263
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Quaternary hydrogeology
V. A. Kiryukhin
270
Filtration anisotropy of high-moor peat
A. L. Nevzorov, I. V. Tel'minov
276
Assessment of changes in hydrogeological conditions of a built site at limited initial data
A. Yu. Belyaev, R. G. Dzhamalov, Yu. A. Medovar, and I. O. Yushmanov
282
PEOPLE OF SCIENCE
In commemoration of Igor Stepanovich Pashkovskii
 
 

 

INORGANIC CARBON DISSOLVED
IN THE OCEAN AND CLIMATE
P. N. Makkaveev

Shirs hov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences Nakhimovskiipr. 36, Moscow, 117997, Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In the latest ten years the changes in the climate conditions arouse the heightened interest to the prob­lem of the greenhouse effect and consequently to the studying of the dynamics of concentration of CO2 in the system ocean-atmosphere. The modern changes in the maintenance of CO2 and temperature can result both from the anthropogenic influence and from the rhythms of natural processes. The results of modeling carbon equilibrium in the World Ocean water for the Quaternary period allow us to suppose that the modern climate change is a part of natural climate variations ongoing for at least of more than 400 thousand years.


Key words: carbon dioxide, climate, World Ocean, Quaternary period.

GEOCRYOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN SREDNEBOTUOBINSKOE GAS FIELD (THE WESTERN YAKUTIA)
M. M. Shats

Melnikov Permafrost Institute, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Merzlotnaya, 36, Yakutsk 10, 677010 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Environmental and geoecological conditions at the Srednebotuobinskoe gas field are discussed. Physical disturbance of the surface and chemical contamination with the associated mineralized water, lime white, gas emission to the atmosphere, etc., are proved to be the principal impact factors on the environment. The main components of geoecological monitoring are proposed required at all stages of field explora­tion.

Key words: gas fields, permafrost, environmental conditions

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF HYDROGEOSPHERE DISTURBANCE UPON UNDERGROUND MINING
Yu.P. Galchenko, G.V. Sabyanin

Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources RAS, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The influence of underground mining on the hydrogeosphere components is considered. It is shown that the nature and intensity of changes in these components depend mainly on the structure of technological­ly altered subsoil body formed in the lithosphere. We propose the new criteria to quantify the ecological significance of technogenic changes in the hydrogeosphere upon the development of mineral resources.


Key words: hydrogeosphere, development of mineral resources, underground mining, geotechnology, mine workings, environmental impacts, criteria.

TRANSFORMATION OF SOILS IN
THE PERMAFROST-TAIGA CONDITIONS IN THE AREA OF GAS-CONDENSATE FIELD DEVELOPMENT
I. A. Belozertseva

Sochava Institute of Geography, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences.
Ulan-Batorskaya ul. 1, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

In this paper, the chemical composition of soils in the territory of the Kovykta gas condensate field is characterized on the basis of research peformed in 2002-2008. The presented results provide for a better understanding of the ecological state of soil cover, its resilience to anthropogenic impacts; and its pos­sible disturbance caused by drilling and laying geophysical profiles.

Key words: underground power resources, transformation of soil cover, geochemistry, permafrost -taiga conditions.

STUDY OF SORPTION PROPERTIES
OF THE MECHANICALLY TREATED SERPENTINE
WITH RESPECT TO CU(II) CATION
E. V. Kalinkina*, A. M. Kalinkin*, T. N. Vasil'eva*, S. I. Mazukhina**,
and A. T. Belyaevskii*

*Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Elements and Minerals, Kola Scientific
Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences; ul. Fersmana 26a, Apatity, Murmansk oblast, 184209 Russia.E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
**Institute of Physical and Technological Problems of Energy in the North, Kola Scientific Centre,
Russian Academy of Sciences; ul. Fersmana 14, Apatity, Murmansk oblast, 184209 Russia.
E-mail: mazukhina@inep. ksc. ru

A preliminary mechanical activation of serpentine was carried out to increase its reactivity with respect to withdrawal of dissolved Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The overall efficiency of the copper removal using the mechanically treated serpentine is determined by combining several processes including ionic exchange, mineral dissolution, hydrolysis, sorption and co-precipitation reactions.

The computer program "Selector" was used to model the early stage of the interaction of initial and mechanically treated serpentine with the aqueous Cu-containing solution leading to formation of copper hydroxide sulfates. It was shown that there was a reasonable agreement between the experimental and calculated data of the compositions of solutions and solid phases.


Key words: serpentine, mechanical activation, recovery, copper (II) cations

INFLUENCE OF NATURAL CONVECTION ON STABILIZATION OF CONTAMINANT PLUME IN NATURAL TRAPS AT UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL OF LIQUID WASTE
V. I. Malkovsky and А. А. Рек

Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy,
and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetnyi per. 35, Moscow, 119017 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Contaminant migration from the zone of injection disposal of liquid hazardous waste in a deep-seated aquifer is considered. As a result of elevated density, polluted groundwater can accumulate in aquifer dips (depressions). On the basis of a 2-D flow model for groundwater with heterogeneous density, condi­tions are determined when the gravity force hinders from escape of the polluted groundwater from the depressions due to regional flow. This permits us to consider depressions as the natural traps for the pol­luted groundwater. These conditions are determined on the basis of simple analytical expressions, which are obtained from an analysis of a theoretical flow model for a groundwater with heterogeneous density in an inclined aquifer. The developed technique is used for estimation of efficiency of such a trap at the site of injection disposal of liquid radioactive waste from Mining and Chemical Combine in Krasnoyarsk region. It is shown that the analytical estimations of the trap with the use of presented technique are in good agreement with the results of computer simulation of contaminant migration.


Key words: groundwater, aquifer, liquid waste, contaminant, natural convection.

IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNOGENIC SOURCES BY THE CHARACTER OF ACOUSTIC SIGNALS
V. I. Frantsuzova

Institute of Ecological Problems in the North, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences nab. Severnoi Dviny 23, Arkhangelsk, 163000 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The wave patterns produced by the response of the earth crust's surface layers to the impact of three types of sources are compared, i..e., the blast in Pokrovskoe quarry; the fall of Bulava rocket stage registered at the Tamitsa seismic station, and launch of cosmic objects from Plisetsk cosmodrome registered by the Permilovo seismic station.


Key words: acoustic signal, cosmic object, seismic station, shock-air wave, technogenic sources.

MASSIFS OF INWASH FILL SOILS AS A SOURCE
OF TECHNOGENIC HAZARDS
S. K. Nikolaeva*, E. N. Ogorodnikova**, and T. V. Andreeva*

*Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Vorob 'evy gory, Moscow, 119991 Russia;
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
**"Ecological Faculty, Russian People Friendship University,
Podol'skoe sh. 8/5, Moscow, 117093 Russia.E- mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Technogenic soils and their massifs formed by means of hydromechanization are considered. The main attention is paid to human-made ground produced by mining, benefication and processing of mineral resources including solid fuel combustion. Massifs of inwash fill and related hazards are systematized depending on their genetic peculiarities and change in time. The examples are given elucidating the necessity of engineering geological and engineering ecological research for engineering protection of territories.


Key words: technogenic inwash fill soils, tailing dump, sludge storage, ash-and-slag dumps, sources of technogenic hazards.

ROLE OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN CLAY EMANATION
P. S. Miklyaev*, T. B. Petrova**, V. M. Makeev*, A. I. Kazeev*, O. A. Petrova**

* Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences Ulanskii per. 13, bid. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia;
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** Chemical Faculty, Moscow State University Leninskiye gory, Moscow, 119992 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The influence of clay microstructure on radon emanation is studied. It has been found experimentally that clay and silt with a cellular microstructure are characterized by the highest emanation coefficient (more than 60%). The clay transformed by diagenesis (showing either matrix or turbulent microstructure), are characterized by the emanation coefficient of about 50%. Emanation of lithified clay and argillite (a laminar microstructure) does not exceed 10%. Thus, the emanation capacity of clay depends on clay microstructure and regularly decreases in the following row: cellular> matrix/ turbulent> laminar micro-structure.

Key words: emanation coefficient, radon, radium, clay minerals, clay microstructure, radioactive re­coil.

QUARTERNARY HYDROGEOLOGY
V. A. Kiryukhin

St. PetersburgStateMiningInstitute (TechnicalUniversity), Vasil'evskyostrov, 21 liniya, bid. 2, St. Petersburg, 199106 Russia; E-mail: spmi.hgig@mail.ru

In the Quaternary period, new hydrogeological conditions were formed for the first time in the history of our planet. Mantle glaeiation, permafrost development, neotectonic and volcanic processes were the causes of this situation. The main reason of these changes was the appearance of a man and his active in­terference into the environment. The uppermost part of subsurface hydrosphere representing the zone of free exchange is the object of Quarternary hydrogeology investigation. Landscape and climatic paradigm defines its essence. The paper characterizes the main peculiarities of Quaternary (anthropogenic) hydro-geology and formulates its further tasks. Solving anthropogenic hydrogeological problems is undoubt­edly up-to-date and acute, as the intensity of human impact on the underground hydrosphere is constantly rising. The means that the range of theoretical and practical problems to be solved is getting wider.


Key words: Quarternary hydrogeology, subsurface hydrosphere, permafrost, mantle glaeiation, ground-water resources, hydrogeoecology, thermal barrier, zone of free water exchange, fresh water.

FILTRATION ANISOTROPY OF HIGH-MOOR PEAT
A. L. Nevzorov, I. V. Tel'minov

Northern (Arctic) Federal University, nab. Severnoi Dviny 17, Arkhangelsk, 163002 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The apparatus for determination of hydraulic conductivity in peat is discussed in the paper. The device is intended for measuring coefficients of permeability in different directions, including layer-by-layer upon water movement through the specimen in the course of its uniaxial compression. The results of filtration anisotropy determination in the high-moor peat are presented.

This scientific research was supported by the Federal program "Scientific and educational personnel in innovative Russia" according to the Government contract № 16.740.11.0436 (03.10.2010).


Key words: peat, seepage, coefficient of permeability, filtration anisotropy.

ASSESSMENT OF CHANGES
IN HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF A BUILT SITE
AT LIMITED INITIAL DATA
A. Yu. Belyaev, R. G. Dzhamalov, Yu. A. Medovar, I. O. Yushmanov

Water Problems Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences
ul. Gubkina 3, Moscow, 119331 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

For the forecast of change in hydrogeological conditions within a densely built area, there is no any initial information outside the building site. On the basis of mathematical modeling, the possibility of carrying out calculations is shown at the limited initial information on geofiltrational properties of soil and groundwater level of aquifer outside the building site. It is shown that a partial extrapolation of the available prospecting data is possible beyond a building site for the substantiation and parameterization of boundary conditions of a stream for the limited area in plan.

Key words: groundwater recharge, watering area, calculated parameters, simulation, hydrodynamics, flooding of territories, initial data.