"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 4, 2012

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 4, 2012

Post-Chernobyl hydrosphere of Belarus within the radioactively contaminated territories (retrospective review)
A. V. Kudelsky, J. T. Smith, and V.I. Pashkevich
293
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Geochemistry and genesis of underground brines in the northeastern part of Ussuri Bay (Primorskii krai)
G.A. Chelnokov, N.A. Kharitonova, and M.K. Vasil'eva
310
Isotope-hydrochemical study of changes in dynamics and geoecological condition of subsurface water in the urban area upon exploitation of water-bearing horizons
A.I. Tikhonov, A.F. Ivanov, N.E. Mironova, V.P. Tikhonov, and S.V. Efimova
320
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Spatial structure of technogenic pollution of snow cover by soluble and insoluble forms of metals in the industrial city and its neighborhood
E.M. Baglaeva, A.P. Sergeev, and A.N. Medvedev
326
Study of genetically different fields of pollution in the protected areas. Geostatistical analysis of bioindication data
Yu.G. Tyutyunnik, J. Daunis-i-Estadella, O.B. Blyum, and J.A. Martin-Fernandez
336
NATURAL AND HUMAN-INDUCED PROCESSES
Natural sources of methane and carbon dioxide on Sakhalin Island and their role in the formation of ecological gas-geochemical areas
R.B. Shakirov and N.S. Syrbu
344
Methods of karst hazard assessment for the construction purposes: state-of-art and prospects
V.V. Tolmachev
354
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Geocybernetics as a tool for identification and prediction of status of natural and technonatural systems
G.K. Bondarik
364
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Influence of shape, quantity, composition, and spatial distribution of inclusions on strength and deformation properties of geocomposite
D.I. Mogilevtseva
371
BOOK REVIEW
Review of the book "Subsurface isolation of radioactive waste"
S.A. Nesmeyanov
376
JUBILEES
Viktor Titovich Trofimov (to the 75th birthday)   378
PEOPLE OF SCIENCE
In commemoration of Boris Iosifovich Pisarskii   381
In commemoration of John Nevill Hutchinson   383

 

 

POST-CHERNOBYL HYDROSPHERE OF BELARUS WITHIN THE RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES
(retrospective review)
A. V. Kudelsky*, J. T. Smith**, V. I. Pashkevich*

Institute for Nature Management, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
F. Skoriny ul. 10, Minsk, 220114 Belarus. E-mail: nature@ecology. basnet, by
** University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Bid., Burnaby Road, Portsmouth,
PO1 3QL United Kingdom. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The retrospective review of scientific investigations of the Belarus hydrosphere within the radioactively contaminated territories is presented for 1986—2005. The area under consideration occupies more than 35 000 km2 with contamination levels 37-1480 kBq/m2 for 137Cs and 22-111 kBq/m2 for 90Sr. Wide-range variations in average vertical velocity (0.11-2.66 cm/yr) and coefficient of quasidiffusion (0.01-1.4 cm2/yr) of radiocaesium migration in soils have been observed. A statistically significant tendency of decreasing with time the radionuclide migration parameters in automorphic soddy-podzolic soils within the over floodplain river terraces was revealed.
The levels of groundwater contamination varied within 0.02-0.58 Bq/1 for 137Cs and 0.02-0.18 Bq/1 for 90Sr. The behavior of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs and 90Sr in hydrologically isolated bog systems within the catchment area of the Pripyat River as well as radionuclide pollution of the water flows of Dnieper, Pripyat, Sozh, Besed, Iput Rivers are considered. Dynamics of decreasing the average annual radionuclide activity concentrations and their variations during spring-autumn high water levels is demonstrated. Simplified dynamic model for predicting the radionuclide activity concentrations in the river water following the large-scale radionuclide contamination is considered.


Key words: Chernobyl catastrophe, hydrosphere, radioactive contamination, state and prognosis.

GEOCHEMISTRY AND GENESIS OF UNDERGROUND BRINES
IN THE NORTHEASTERN PART OF USSURI BAY
(PRIMORSKI KRAI)
G. A. Chelnokov, N. A. Kharitonova, and M. K. Vasil'eva

Far East Geological Institute, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences pr. 100-letiya Vladivostoka 159, Vladivostok, 690022 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents original data on chemical and isotope structure of underground brines and accompanying gases in the coastal zone of the southern Primorski Krai (the Sukhodol Bay). Proceeding from the ratios of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in brines and surrounding water, as well as the data on chemical composition and the rare-earth element content, we managed to reveal the genesis of brines, to define probable recharge areas and to estimate the circulation time. It is established that weak Ca-Na-Cl brines are highly metamorphosed and are not influenced by the modern sea water. The pattern of rare-earth elements distribution shows that water metamorphism is most likely related to diagenesis of marine and fresh-water sediments as well as to the interaction with continental carbonate deposits. 3H determinations proved that brines are formed in the zone of slow water exchange. The studied brines are typical for the earth-crust sites bearing oil and gas deposits; and brine occurrence in Cretaceous rocks most likely results from the overflow from parental Triassic sediments.


Keywords: hydrogeo chemistry, brines, isotopes, search for hydrocarbons.

ISOTOPE-HYDROCHEMICAL STUDY OF CHANGES IN DYNAMICS
AND GEOECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF SUBTERRANEAN WATERS
WITHIN THE CITY LINE IN THE PROCESS OF EXPLOITATION
OF WATER-BEARING HORIZONS
A.I. Tikhonov, A.F. Ivanov, N.E. Mironova, V.P. Tikhonov, and S.V. Efimova

Research Institute for Geological and Geoecological Problems, ul. akademika Koroleva 1, Cheboksary, 428023 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The complex study with the application of uranium-isotope and microelement hydrogeochemical methods showed the possibility of studying changes in dynamics and geoecological condition of subsurface waters within a city residential area by the indicator modeling of subsurface water formation and circulation, as well as interaction of waters from different horizons, including water ingress from deep aquifers.


Key words: uranium-isotope and microelement hydrogeochemical methods, surface, subterranean and deep waters, water intake.

SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF TECHNOGENIC POLLUTION OF SNOW COVER BY SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE FORMS OF METALS IN THE INDUSTRIAL CITY AND ITS NEIGHBOURHOOD
E. M. Baglaeva, A. P. Sergeev, and A. N. Medvedev

Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S. Kovalevskoi 20, Yekaterinburg, 620990 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The spatial structure of technogenic snow cover pollution by soluble and insoluble forms of metals is analyzed according to the snow survey in Novouralsk and in the nearby territory located along the Novouralsk - Kirovgrad road. It is found that the pollution of snow cover by the insoluble form of chromium is non-uniform in the industrial'city. It is shown that the solubility of the pollutant has a significant influence on the spatial distribution of pollution.


Keywords: spatial structure, technogenic pollution, snow survey, soluble form, insoluble form.

STUDY OF GENETICALLY DIFFERENT FIELDS
OF POLLUTION IN THE PROTECTED AREAS: GEOSTATISTICAL
ANALYSIS OF BIOINDICATION DATA
Yu. G. Tyutyunnik* J. Daunis-i-Estadella**, О. В. Blyum***,
and J. A. Martin-Fernandez**

*Research Centre for Ecomonitoring and Biodiverisity of Megacities, Ukrainian National Academy of
Sciences, ul. Lebedeva 37, Kiev, 03143 Ukraine. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** Girona University, Campus Montivili, Girona, E-17071 Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ***National botanic garden, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, ul. Timiryazeva 1, Kiev, 01014
Ukraine. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of bi-plot simulation of the bioindication data on the atmospheric and hydrogeochemical pollution in "Aleksandria" arboretum (Belaya Tserkov, Ukraine).The reasons for the development of the atmospheric and hydrogeochemical contamination are revealed, as well as chemical elements marking these reasons.


Key words: bioindication, technogenic atmospheric geochemical and hydrogeochemical fields, bi-plot, "Aleksandria" arboretum.

NATURAL SOURCES OF METHANE AND CARBON DIOXIDE
ON SAKHALIN ISLAND AND THEIR ROLE IN THE FORMATION
OF ECOLOGICAL GAS-GEOCHEMICAL ZONES
R.B. Shakirov, N.S. Syrbu

II'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Baltiyskaya ul. 43, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Two major groups of the lithosphere sources of methane are distinguished, i.e., the lithosphere sources proper (metamorphism and spreading zones) and organic fuel deposits in the Earth's crust. Natural methane emission from the lithosphere sources is investigated insufficiently. Deposits of hydrocarbons, mud volcanoes, geothermal systems and mineral sources are located on Sakhalin Island. All investigated objects are associated with large tectonic faults: the Yuzhno-Sakhalinsky and Pugachiovsky mud volcanoes are controlled by the Central Sakhalin fault, the Shakhterskoe coal deposit is confined to the West Sakhalin fault, while the Daginskaya geothermal system and the studied oil-and-gas fields are associated with the Hokkaido- Sakhalin fault. Gas-hazardous areas connected with the spontaneous gas seepage are also distinguished along the tectonic faults. In Sakhalin, settlements are mainly located close to fault zones. Therefore, the problem of gas safety acquires the primary importance. Our investigations allow allocating two basic zones on the Sakhalin island with different types of hydrocarbon sources: oil-and-gas area (north-east) and coal-deposit area (south-west). These areas are separated by the Central Sakhalin fault.


Key words: gas geochemical features, mud volcanoes, natural sources of methane and carbon dioxide, ecological gas-geochemical zones.

METHODS OF KARST HAZARD ASSESSMENT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES:  STATE-OF-ART AND PROSPECTS
V. V. Tolmachev

Karst-Control and Bank Protection Joint-Stock Co., ul. Gastello 10, Dzerzhinsk, 606019 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper considers in brief the results of international conferences on the problems in engineering karstology held since 1973 till 2011. The multi-aspect character of karst hazard is emphasized. The methods of karst territories classification by the parameters of karst-sinkhole hazard are discussed. International experience in the use of stochastic models of sinkhole development is analyzed. The new trends in the development of karst hazard evaluation are identified for the purposes of civil engineering.


Key words: types of karst hazard, sinkholes, probabilistic methods, time prediction.

GEOCYBERNETICS AS A TOOL FOR IDENTIFICATION
AND PREDICTION OF STATUS OF NATURAL
AND TECHNONATURAL SYSTEMS
G. K. Bondarik

S. Ordzhonikidze Russian State Geological Prospecting University ul.Miklukho-Maklaya 23, Moscow, 117997 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The idea of geocybemetics as a part of the general theory about technonatural systems is discussed. The functions of geocybemetics are considered that consist in the informational support to the optimal control over the environment state. The properties of heterogeneous technonatural systems are described, as well as their identification and prediction methods.


Key words: engineering geology, natural and technonatural systems, adequate environment management, geocybemetics, informational support.

INFLUENCE OF SHAPE, QUANTITY, COMPOSITION
AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF INCLUSIONS ON STRENGTH
AND DEFORMATION PROPERTIES OF GEOCOMPOSITE
D. I. Mogilevtseva

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences Ulanskiiper. 13, bid.2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper presents the results of laboratory studies on the influence of shape, quantity, composition and spatial distribution of inclusions on the strength and deformation properties of sandy soil.

Key words: sandy soil, composite, angle of internal friction, modulus of deformation.