"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 6, 2012

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 6, 2012

PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "ENGEOPRO-2011"
Triggering of natural disasters and technogeneous emergencies by low amplitude seismic waves
G. G. Kocharyan
483
Geophysical methods as a part of engineering survey in megacities
V. V. Sevostyanov, I. G. Mindel, B. A. Trifonov, and N. A. Ragozin
497
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Conditions of formation of useful fresh groundwater resources at Nizhnemzymtinsky deposit on the Caucasian coast of the Black Sea and their change in space and time under the intense anthropogenic load
B. V. Borevsky, G. E. Ershov, and Yu. Yu. Kuvykina
507
Engineering geological support of environmentally safe development of technogenic mining systems
A. M. Gal'perin, Yu. V. Kirichenko, V. A. Ermolov, and Yu.I. Koutepov
520
Ground-water interaction assessment based on the large-scale mapping of geological and hydrogeological conditions in Moscow
I. A. Pozdniakova, I. A. Kozhevnikova, I. A. Kostikova, and L. S. Toms
527
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Distribution of radiocaesium in the bottom sediments of the Kara Sea
A. Yu. Miroshnikov
540
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Modelling of filtration parameters of gypsiferous rocks upon brine filtration
Yu Liu, and A. V. Lekhov
551
Methods of modeling hydraulic heterogeneity in sedimentary formations
V. A. Bakshevskaya, S. P. Pozdniakov
560
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
Calculation of effective modulus of bulk deformation for sandy ground reinforced by geocomposite method
D. I. Mogilevtseva
571
Authors' index for 2012
 
574

 

TRIGGERING OF NATURAL DISASTERS AND TECHNOGENEOUS EMERGENCIES BY LOW AMPLITUDE SEISMIC WAVES

G.G. Kocharyan

Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences Leninskii pr., 38, bld.l, Moscow, 119334 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The phenomenological model of cumulating deformations in geosystems and engineering structures under seismic vibrations is considered. The model is based on the results of laboratory and field experiments. It is shown that the accumulation effect is produced by such properties of the material discontinuities as non-linearity of the stress-strain curve and significant asymmetry of the loading and unloading branches. These deformations can be accumulated under repeated impacts. As the sign of residual deformations coincides with the quasi-static trend, the cumulative value of deformations most often doesn't reach the critical threshold in case of sign-changing slow loads, such as tides, temperature stresses and others. In case of the directed deformation trend, the weak vibration disturbance leads to accumulation of residual deformation of the same sign, which results in the increase of deformation rate up to dynamic instability. In non-seismic regions, the effect of weak seismic vibrations on objects and engineering structures can turn to be the main factor of seismic safety.

Key words: seismic waves, deformations, fault zones, fractures, slope stability, pipelines, stress-corrosion.

GEOPHYSICAL METHODS AS A PART OF ENGINEERING SURVEY IN MEGACITIES

V. V. Sevostyanov, I. G. Mindel, B. A. Trifonov, and N. A. Ragozin

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences Ulanskii per. 13, bid.2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The role and tasks of geophysical methods as a part of engineering survey in megacities are described. The specifics of applying multi-frequency seismoacoustic methods are provided. The main results obtained from geophysical methods for two megacities, i.e., Moscow and Big Sochi, are presented.

Key words: seismic and seismoacoustic methods, physicomechanical properties of soils, seismicity, seismic microzoning, seismic impact

CONDITIONS OF FORMATION OF USEFUL FRESH GROUNWATER RESOURCES AT NIZHNEMZYMTINSKY DEPOSIT ON THE CAUCASIAN COAST OF THE BLACK SEA AND THEIR CHANGE IN SPACE AND TIME UNDER THE INTENSE ANTHROPOGENOUS LOAD

B. V. Borevsky, G. E. Ershov, Yu. Yu. Kuvykina

Hydrogeological andgeoecological company "HYDEC",
15ya Parkovaya ul. 10a, Moscow, 105203 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper considers the conditions of formation of useful groundwater resources at the Nizhnemzymtin-sky deposit, which is confined to the lower part of the Mzymta River valley on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. The surface river runoff is the main source of groundwater formation. In previous years, the resources depended on the colmatage of the riverbed deposits with reference to the estimation parameters applied since 1980s using the analogue methods. As a result of wide-scale construction in 2010-2011, the colmatage of riverbed deposits has intensified essentially, which led to the reduction in the groundwater reserves. The developed existential model of the deposit allowed us to consider not only the spatial characteristic of all factors of groundwater formation but also its time variability.

Key words: exploitable volumes, Nizhnemzymtinsky deposit, underground water, source of groundwater formation, surface drain, colmatage of riverbed deposits, intense construction, existential model, formation of groundwater reserves, time variability.

ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOGENIC MINING SYSTEMS

A. M. Gal’perin*, Yu. V. Kirichenko*, V. A. Ermolov*, Yu. I. Koutepov**

* Moscow State Mining University, Leninskii pr. 6, Moscow, 119991 Russia;
E-mail: galperin This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** St. Petersburg Mining Institute, 21 liniya, V.O.,
St. Petersburg, 199106 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The projects are suggested for the implementation of combined approach to the ecologically safe development of human-made massives at the largest mining enterprises in Russia (KMA and Kuzbass). This approach provides for the use of methods and means of interactive monitoring, hydraulicking of tailing dams as watered man-made deposits; formation of dump fillings at hydro-filled dumps; the use of waste open pits for the overburden rock disposal; and functioning and preparation to reclamation of complex mining natural and man-made systems. Examples are given of hydromechanized monitoring at hydro-filled structures at Lebedinskii and Stoilenskii GOKs.

Key words: open-pit, hydrogeomechanical exploration, interactive monitoring, reclamation of complex mining natural and man-made systems.

GROUNDWATER INTERACTION ASSESSMENT BASED ON THE LARGE-SCALE MAPPING OF GEOLOGICAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN MOSCOW

I. A. Pozdniakova, I. A. Kozhevnikova, I. A. Kostikova, L. S. Toms

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ulanskii per. 13, bid.2, Moscow, 101000 Russia.
E-mail: [email protected] ru

Assessing ineraction between aquifers is necessary to estimate the protection degree of the aquifer in the Carboniferous limestones (which is the main source of potable water supply in Moscow area) from contaminants penetrating from the upper aquifers. The presented approach to groundwater interaction and protection assessment is based on the large-scale mapping of geological and hydrogeological conditions in Moscow. The results obtained may be used for solving the problem of groundwater protection from contamination; as well as for planning of engineering activities in the city.

Key words: groundwater, zoning, aquifer, aquiclude, protection, interaction, contamination, vertical leakage, geological and hydrogeological conditions, groundwater flow computation.

DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOCAESIUM IN THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF THE KARA SEA

A. Yu. Miroshnikov

IGEM RAS, Staromonetny per. 35, Moscow, 119017 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of radiogeochemical studies carried out by IGEM RAS in the Kara Sea and the estuaries of Ob and Enisey rivers in 1995-2003, specifically on "Akademik Boris Petrov" re-search vessel. Based on the studies of circa 1500 samples of bottom sediments, obtained from 172 sea and rivers stations, 137Cs distribution map in the surface sediments was created. Four zones of radiocesium overactivity (> 15 Bk/kg) were identified: Novaya Zemlya Zone, Vaigach Zone, Ob Zone and Yenisei Zone. The allocated zones have different radiocesium concentration levels, as well as different inflow sources, but all of them were generated under the influence of complex geochemical barriers. Based on the 47 sectioned cores of bottom sediments research, sampled in Ob Zone and Yenisei Zone overactivity zones, the distinct differences in vertical radiocesium distribution were identified. It is evidenced that these differences are caused by oscillations of suspended silt discharge over the years, which are main transfer agents of radiocesium dissolvable and semi-dissolvable forms and doesn't depend on sedimentation circumstances as well as on geochemical characteristics of depositing environment.

Key words: Kara Sea, Arctic, radiocesium, bottom sediments, macroarena, drainage area, radioac-tive contamination, waste, sedimentation, marginal filter, geochemical landscape, vertical distribution, estuaries, fades analysis, migration, accumulation, zones of radiocesium overactivity

MODELING OF FILTRATION PARAMETERS OF GYPSIFEROUS ROCKS UPON BRINE FILTRATION

Yu Liu, A.V. Lekhov

Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, Moscow, 119991 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The change of permeability of rocks with fractures partially sealed by mineral filling upon the infiltration of salt-dump brine diluted with ground water has been studied. The altering ionic strength of solution produces the mineral saturation deficit, which leads to the dissolution of mineral filling and changes permeability by fractures. Co-simulation of geofiltration, mass transfer and thermodynamic equilibrium has been performed using the PHT3D computer program with the additional calculation of permeability shift. A narrow area of elevated permeability is formed at the top of gypsiferous rock zone, which virtually does not alter the waterproof properties of stata overlying the potassium salt deposit during the salt-dump operation.

Key words: groundwater contamination, brine filtration, salt-dump, dissolution of minerals, gypsum, permeability shift, modeling, PHT3D, potassium salts

METHODS OF MODELING HYDRAULIC HETEROGENEITY IN SEDIMENTARY FORMATIONS

V. A. Bakshevskaya*, S. P. Pozdniakov**

* Water Problem Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Gubkina 3, Moscow, 119333 Russia;
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
**Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, Moscow, 119991 Russia.
E-mail: [email protected] ru

Modern approaches to and methods of modeling lithological and hydraulic heterogeneity in sedimentary formations are reviewed, classified and described. A special attention is given to geostatistical modeling methods including hydrofacies simulation with the TP/MC approach.

Key words: hydraulic heterogeneity, stochastic simulation, kriging, Markov chains, hydrofacies, flow and transport in porous medium.

CALCULATION OF EFFECTIVE MODULUS OF BULK DEFORMATION FOR SANDY GROUND REINFORCED BY GEOCOMPOSITE METHOD

D. I. Mogilevtseva

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences Ulanskiiper. 13, bid.2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The equation for calculating the effective modulus of bulk deformation is proposed for sandy ground reinforced by Geocomposite method on the basis of dynamic sounding and calculation data.

Key words: sand, injected solution, dynamic sounding, effective modulus of bulk deformation, Geocom-posite