"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 4, 2013

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 4, 2013

Conditions of geohazards development in the construction area of mountain sports structures in the Krasnopolyanskii region of Sochi
V. I. Osipov, Yu. A. Mamaev, and A. A. Yastrebov
291
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Geoecological estimation of boggy territories in the Southern taiga subzone of Western Siberia (by the example of Chaya river basin)
Yu. A. Kharanzhevskaya
303
Once again about the possible influence of subsurface water on the Caspian Sea level
V. P. Zverev, I. A. Kostikova
316
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Buried industrial waste of the Tyrnyauz tungsten-molybdenum mining complex: mineral composition, geochemical features and utilization as the solution of socio-ecological problems in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic
N .S. Bortnikov, A. G. Gurbanov, O. A. Bogatikov, B. S. Karamurzov, A. Ya. Dokuchaev, A. B. Leksin, V. M. Gazeev, and A. V. Shevchenko
323
UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF WASTES
Substantiation of the long-term safety of geological repositories for high-level radioactive wastes
В. Т. Kochkin
342
Immobilization of the REE-actinide fraction with usage of the inorganic sorbent "Thermoxide-5"
S. V. Yudintsev, V. T. Gotovchikov, B. I. Omelianenko, B. S. Nikonov, M. S. Nickolsky, and О. Е. Kritskaya
353
NATURAL AND HUMAN-INDUCED PROCESSES
Geodynamic monitoring of power engineering structures (by the example of Seversk nuclear power plant)
O. G. Popova, A. D. Zhigalin, F. O. Arakelyan, and V. V. Nedyad'ko
363
SOIL AND ROCK ENGINEERING
Changes in composition, texture, and properties of clay soils under the influence of microbiotic denitrification and fermentation
P. V.lvanov
370
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Principles and criteria of distinguishing urbogeosystems upon geoecological assessment of regions
E. V.Buldakova, T.B .Minakova
376

 

CONDITIONS OF GEOHAZARDS DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONSTRUCTION AREA OF MOUNTAIN SPORTS STRUCTURES IN THE KRASNOPOLYANSKII REGION OF SOCHI

V. I. Osipov, Yu. A. Mamaev, and A. A. Yastrebov

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ulanskii per. 13, bid.2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper characterizes engineering geological conditions of Olympic construction on the Aibga mountain slope included in the front range of the central Big Caucasus. The natural factors influencing the development of slope process are described. Methodological approaches to environmental substantiation of complex construction projects in the areas of high complicity are considered. The importance of historical-geological analysis of slope formation and process development is shown. The procedure issues related to natural risk management, the construction of engineering protective structures, and arranging systems of combined dynamic monitoring are discussed.

Key words: mountain massifs, natural factors, slope processes, landslides and mud/lows, natural risk, engineering protection, monitoring.

GEOECOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF BOGGY TERRITORIES IN THE SOUTHERN TAIGA SUBZONE OF WESTERN SIBERIA (BY THE EXAMPLE OF CHAYA RIVER BASIN)

Yu. A. Kharanzhevskaya

Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
ul. Gagarina 3, Tomsk, 634050 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The methodology of estimating geoecological conditions is proposed and the corresponding analysis is performed for the Chaya River basin, which is characterized by widespread bogs. The research proved that the area of mires and the distribution of swamp and ridge-hollow-pool complexes were the major factors controlling the considered territory stability and influencing on the water runoff. According to the geoecological estimation performed, the territory is characterized by medium and high resistance to anthropogenic impact and adverse conditions for economic activities.

Key words: estimation, geoecological condition, basin, water chemistry composition, water flow, hydro-chemical flow, mire, structure, influence, stability, intensity of water exchange.

ONCE AGAIN ABOUT THE POSSIBLE INFLUENCE OF SUBSURFACE WATER ON THE CASPIAN SEA LEVEL

V. P. Zverev, I. A. Kostikova

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoseience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulanskii per. 13, bid. 2,
Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The possible mass flows of depth fluids in the Caspian sedimentary basin are considered. All of them are found to be at least several orders of magnitude less than the water mass necessary for uprising the Caspian Sea level by 1 cm/year. It is proved that at present any substantial variations in the Caspian Sea level may be caused only by an active response of the Caspian sedimentary mantle to tectonic stress in the consolidated basement.

Key words: sedimentary basin, sedimentation water, mass flows, geofluids.

BURIED INDUSTRIAL WASTE OF THE TYRNYAUZ TUNGSTEN-MOLYBDENUM MINING COMPLEX: MINERAL COMPOSITION, GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES AND UTILIZATION AS THE SOLUTION OF SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC

N. S. Bortnikov*, A. G. Gurbanov*, O. A. Bogatikov*, B. S. Karamurzov**, A. Ya. Dokuchaev*, A. B. Leksin*, V. M. Gazeev*, and A. V. Shevchenko**

*Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetnyi per.35, Moscow, 119017 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** Kabardino-Balkar State University, ul. Chernyshevskogo 175, Nalchik, 360004 Kabardino-Balkar Republic. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The data were obtained about the forms of occurrence and distribution regularities of ore mineral sub-stance in tailings at the main basic points of Tyrnyauz tungsten-molybdenum mining complex (TTMMC) repository. The mineral and chemical composition of final tailings and pulp at the repository of TTMMC was studied by electron microscopy, energy-dispersion X-ray analysis, X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation methods. Fine-dispersed low-temperature mineral forms of scheelite, powellite, tungstite, mo-lybdetungstenite, calcium wolframate were identified. The essential changes and transformations had occurred during the long time of storage of the industrial waste by the influence of external and internal permanent factors. A stable positive correlation of W and Mo with S, CaO and Sr was found both for clay and sandy granulometric fractions, which could be explained by the presence of remained mineral forms of molybdenite, molybdescheelite and scheelite in final tailings of TTMIC. The TTMMC tailing dumps are the unique human-induced fields of metallic and nonmetallic raw materials. They are also considerable reserves of rare and other toxic elements. The processing of the TTMMC buried industrial waste will not only facilitate acquisition of metals and raw materials necessary for the national economy, but it will also reduce the risk of human-caused catastrophes.

Key words: Tyrnyauz tungsten-molybdenum mining complex, buried industrial waste, final tailings, mineral composition, fine-dispersed mineral forms, geochemical features, industrial waste repository utilization, environmental hazards, social problems.

SUBSTANTIATION OF THE LONG-TERM SAFETY OF GEOLOGICAL REPOSITORIES FOR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES

В. Т. Kochkin

Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry,
Russian Academy of Sciences (IGEM RAS) Staromonetnyper, 35, Moscow, 119017 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article characterizes problems associated with increasing uncertainties in evolution models of the waste disposal system in long-term prognoses. The problems arise in the development of a safety case for geological repositories of high-level radioactive wastes. Some are areas of consensus for approach to their solution. Other problems are discussed both theoretically and in relation to actual projects. Recommendations have been formulated concerning contentious problems of substantiation of the long-term safety of the geological repository in Krasnoyarsk region under the current Russian regulations. The article discusses potential use of directional (irreversible), cyclic and non-linear regularities, established for different geological processes as fundamental tools for substantiation of the long-term repository safety.

Key words: high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel, geological repositories, safety assessment, long-term prediction.

IMMOBILIZATION OF THE REE-ACTINIDE FRACTION WITH USAGE OF THE INORGANIC SORBENT "THERMOXIDE-5"

S. V. Yudintsev*, V. T. Gotovchikov**, B. I. Omelianenko*, B. S. Nikonov*, M. S. Nikolsky*, О. Е. Kritskaya**

*Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry, Russian Academy
of Sciences, Staromonetny per., 35, Moscow, 119017 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
* * Leading research institute of chemical technology, Kashirskoe sh., 33, Moscow, 115409 Russia

Capacity of two industrial-applied sorbents on the base of titanium ("thermoxide-5") or zirconium ("ther-moxide-3") oxides in respect of rare earth-actinide fraction of the radioactive waste were examined. Sorbent "thermoxide-5" has a higher content and a more homogeneous distribution of waste imitators in comparison with zirconate sorbent. Its saturation level in respect of elements of REE-actinide fraction ranged from 22 to 24 wt% that is 3-5 times higher than for "thermoxide-3" sorbent. By induction melting in cold crucible of the "thermoxide-5" with wastes imitators crystalline mineral-like matrices composed of rutile and rare earth titanate (Ln-titanate) were produced. All imitators of the REE-actinide fraction enter Ln-titanate only. The main objectives of further research are the study of solubility of the matrices in water, their stability at radiation, and physical-mechanical properties.

Key words: radioactive waste, actinides, inorganic sorbent, thermoxide, induction melting in cold crucible, mineral-like matrix, rare earth titanate, rutile.

GEODYNAMIC MONITORING OF POWER ENGINEERING STRUCTURES (BY THE EXAMPLE OF SEVERSK NUCLEAR POWER PLANT)

O. G. Popova*, A. D. Zhigalin*, F. O. Arakelyan**, V. V. Nedyad'ko**

*Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulanskii per. 13, bid. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
**"Atomseismoizyskaniya" Co. Ltd.
Skakovaya ul., 32, bid. 2, Moscow, 125040 Russia; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The results of seismic monitoring are discussed, which was performed since July 2008 till April 2010 in order to study geodynamic characteristics of the geological environment at the construction site of Sev-ersk nuclear power plant (Tomsk). The numerical characteristics of anisotropy parameter and the integral indicator of rock stress state obtained by the original method permitted us to reveal the type of time changes in the environment tension and to identify areas that are potentially dangerous for NPP construction and operation. The conclusion is made about the necessity of comprehensive continuous monitoring of geodynamic geophysical characteristics of the environment around the NPP under construction.

Key words: seismic monitoring, nuclear power, geodynamic characteristics of rocks.

CHANGES OF COMPOSITION, TEXTURE AND PROPERTIES OF CLAY SOILS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTIC DENITRIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

P. V. Ivanov

Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, Moscow, 119234 Russia;
E-mail: pvivanov@yandex. ru

The paper discusses the results of the study in the influence of microbiotic denitrification and fermentation on clay soils. The treatment of loamy soils with strains of denitrifying and fermenting bacterium modifies their mineral and microaggregate composition, increases the soil porosity and moisture, and decreases the stress-strain and deformation properties. The main microbiotic processes that can lead to such changes in soil characteristics are also mentioned.

Key words: loamy soil, microorganisms, stress-strain properties, deformation properties, microbiotic processes.

PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA OF DISTINGUISHING URBOGEOSYSTEMS UPON GEOECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF REGIONS

E. V. Buldakova, Т. В. Minakova

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulanskii per. 13, bid. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Actuality of distinguishing an urbosystem as an independent territorial unit for geoenvironmental as-sessment of regions is substantiated. The algorithm of this procedure is suggested. Outlining borders of city influence zones of the city and urbosystems is the first step of study; whereas criteria selection for distinguishing urbosystems upon geoenvironmental assessment of regions is the second step. Testing of the proposed approach on three essentially different examples proved its effectiveness.

Key words: geoecological district, urbоgeosystem, geoecological assessment, boundary, urbanization, geoecological stability.