"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 5, 2013

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 5, 2013

Gas zoning and gas presence of permafrost in the coal-bearing basins of Eastern Arctics and adjacent regions
A. I. Gresov, A. V. Yatsuk
387
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Influence of land reclamation on the ecological state of surface and ground water in Ust-Selenga depression
A. M. Plyusnin, D. I. Zhambalova
399
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Influence of buried industrial waste from Tyrny auz tungsten-molybdenum mining complex on the ecological conditions (soil-plant layer) in Elbrus area (Kabardino-Balkar Republic)
N. S. Bortnikov, A. G. Gurbanov, O. A. Bogatikov, B. S. Karamurzov, A. Ya. Dokuchaev, A. B. Leksin, V. M. Gazeev, and A. V. Shevchenko
405
Technogenic radionuclides in natural water in the areas of peaceful underground nuclear explosions "Craton-3" and "Craton-4"
S.Yu. Artamonova
417
Radiation assessment of soils within urbanized areas
V. A. Gablin
429
UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF WASTES
Formation of functional materials of sphagnum mosses in raised bogs in the lower Amur area
D. V. Onishchenko, V. P. Reva, V. V. Chakov, and B. A. Voronov
434
NATURAL AND HUMAN-INDUCED PROCESSES
Aseismic construction and seismic risks in the North Caucasus
V. G. Stolyarov, L. V. Babaevskaya
442
On the post-technogenic disturbances in the rock massif
V. L. II 'chenko, S. G. Medvedeva
454
SOIL AND ROCK ENGINEERING
Changes in composition, structure, and properties of Koshelev volcano rocks under temperature and pressure effects (experimental study)
V. V. Shanina, К. М. Gerke, A. Yu. Bychkov, and D. V. Korost
459
CHRONICLE
The fifteenth conference in commemoration of academician E.M. Sergeev "Sustainable development: tasks of environmental geoscience (engineering geological, hydrogeological and geocryological aspects)"
O. N. Eremina
471
To the 80th anniversary of the engineering geological department at the Russian State Geological Prospecting University (MGRI-RSGPU)
V. V. Pendin, V. O. Podborskaya
475
JUBILEES
Valentin Petrovich Zverev (to the 80th birthday)
 
 

 

GAS ZONING AND GAS PRESENCE OF PERMAFROST IN THE COAL-BEARING BASINS OF EASTERN ARCTICS AND ADJACENT REGIONS

A. I. Gresov, A. V. Yatsuk

Il 'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences Baltiyskaya ul. 43, Vladivostok, 690095 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Perennial results of gas-controlling complex researches in coal-bearing basins of the Eastern Arctic re-gions and the Northeast Russia are presented in the article. Thickness and morphological peculiarities of permafrost, temperature characteristics, gas content and it genesis, gas presence of coal-beds and enclosing strata, gas permeability of coal-rock masses, geological conditions of gas migration in frozen coal-bearing series have been investigated in the complex. Seasonal inertia of gas emanations to subsoil and pulsating gas bursts to the atmosphere in the coal-bearing basins has been revealed.

Key words: coal, basin, methane, genesis, permafrost, gas content, gas zoning, gas permeability, migration, Eastern Arctic regions, Northeast of Russia.

INFLUENCE OF LAND RECLAMATION ON THE ECOLOGICAL STATE OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER IN UST-SELENGA DEPRESSION

A. M. Plyusnin, D. I. Zhambalova

Geological Institute, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences
ill. Sakhyanovoi 6a, Ulan-Ude, 670047 Russia.
E-mail: plyusnin@gin. bscnet. ru; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The influence of land-reclamation measures on the surface and subsurface runoff is studied in Ust-Se-lenga depression. In the period of drainage and irrigation, peat oxidation had intensified, which induced the ingress of decomposition products (i.e., ammonium, nitrite and nitrate ions, as well as soluble organ-ics) to surface and ground water. Surface and ground water draining the bog are favorable for the intense migration of dissolved iron and manganese ions. These elements are found in concentrations exceeding MPC adopted for fish-farming water reservoirs.

Key words: Lake Baikal, Ust-Selenga depression, bog, drainage and irrigation system, surface and ground water, chemical composition, microelements.

INFLUENCE OF BURIED INDUSTRIAL WASTE FROM TYRNYAUZ TUNGSTEN-MOLYBDENUM MINING COMPLEX ON THE ECOLOGIC CONDITIONS (SOIL-PLANT LAYER) IN ELBRUS AREA (KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC)

N.S. Bortnikov*, A.G. Gurbanov*, O.A. Bogatikov*, B.S. Karamurzov**,

A.Ya. Dokuchaev*, A.B. Leksin*, V.M. Gazeev*, A.V. Shevchenko**
* Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry,
Russian Academy of Sciences. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** Kabardino-Balkar State University. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Huge amounts (about hundreds millions of m3) of waste had been accumulated, buried and reclaimed particularly in the valleys of Baksan and Gihzgit rivers as a result of the Tyrnyauz tungsten-molybdenum mining complex (TTMMC) operation. The pollution area is determined by the strength and velocity of winds blowing in the Baksan valley; and the extent of pollution depends on the grain size of industrial waste on the surface of repositories in natural gullies and mine workings. The chemical analysis of buried waste obtained with X-ray fluorescence and neutron activation methods revealed the excesses of maximum permissible concentrations for a number of heavy metals. The heavy metals determined in soil and vegetation layer at pastures and farmlands adjacent to repositories are carcinogens. The content of the environmentally hazardous elements (As, Zn, Pb, Bi, W, Mo, Sn, S etc.) exceeds considerably their maximal permissible concentrations.
Redistribution of ore substance in the course of time was established, which was accompanied by its concentrating in the deeper levels of the long ago recultivated repository.

The necessity of recycling the buried industrial TTMMC waste is shown. The extraction of W, Mo, Sb, Zn, As, Bi from the industrial waste will reduce the negative influence of buried material from the repositories on the ecological conditions in the Elbrus area.

Key words: Tyrnyauz tungsten-molybdenic mining complex, Elbrus area, repositories, benefication waste, soil-plant layer, mineralogical-geochemical research, heavy metals, carcinogens, pollution area, ecological conditions.

TECHNOGENIC RADIONUCLIDES IN NATURAL WATER IN THE AREAS OF PEACEFUL UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS "CRATON-3" AND "CRATON-4"

S. Yu. Artamonova

Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Division,
Russian Academy of Sciences
pr. akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

New data on the concentration of technogenic radionuclides in surface and ground water in the areas of peaceful underground nuclear explosions «Craton-3» (24.08.1978) and «Craton-4» (09.08.1978) are discussed. The explosion cavity is the underground source of radioactivity. Radionuclides from the explosion cavity at the «Craton-3» site migrate up to earth surface; whereas the explosion cavity at the «Craton-4» site is kept in the hermetic condition.

Key words: peaceful underground nuclear explosion (PUNE), Yakutia, radiogeoecology, geological environment, superficial waters, surface and subsurface water, mass transfer of radionuclides, tritium, ecological risk.

RADIATION ASSESSMENT OF SOILS WITHIN URBANIZED AREAS

V. A. Gablin

Moscow Research and Production Association "Radon "
7th Rostovskii per. 2/14, Moscow, 119121 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Accuracy in radiation measuring and validity of soil radioactivity norms are necessary for the reliable soil radiation assessment. An approach to meeting both requirements has been worked out based on the revealed heterogeneity in soil radiation. Advantages of this approach are shown in comparison to others, currently in use.

Key words: radio-ecological monitoring, radiation assessment of soils, radiation regulation, regulation criterion, radiation measurements, soil composition, representative specimen, homogenizing, reproduc-ibility of measurements, background and abnormal radioactivity, reference levels, analytic cycle, radio-geochemical features.

FORMATION OF FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS OF SPHAGNUM MOSSES IN RAISED BOGS IN THE LOWER AMUR AREA

D. V. Onishchenko, V. P. Reva, V. V. Chakov, B. A. Voronov

Far-East Federal University, ul. Sukhanova 8, Vladivostok, 690950 Russia;
E-mail: ondivl@mail. ru;
Institute for Water and Ecology Problems, Far Eastern Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Kim Yu Chena 65, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Mechano-chemical treatment of amorphous carbon produced by pyrolysis of brown peat moss produces carbon nanotubes, with the yield ranging from 19 wt. % at 7 am to 75 wt. % at 27 h of mechanical activation. Results of comprehensive study of the sorption properties of carbon materials derived from sphagnum moss, i.e., pyrolytic amorphous carbon and multiwalled nanotubes are presented. It is shown that the capacity for oxidative modification depends on the technological parameters of the nanotube formation, and the efficiency of sorption capacity of carbon nanotubes depends on the duration of storage. The possibility of using carbon materials from sphagnum moss as an effective chelator is discussed.

Key words: sphagnum fuscum, pyrolytic processing, mechanic activation, carbon nanotubes, acidity of carbon nanotubes, sorption capacity.

ASEISMIC CONSTRUCTION AND SEISMIC RISKS IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

V. G. Stolyarov, L. V. Babaevskaya

North Caucasus State Technical University,
pr. Kulakova 2, Stavropol, 355029 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The seismic safety of buildings located at the distance of up to 15 km from tectonic faults is considered. These issues are elucidated neither in the Russian Federation's norms, nor in the norms of the USA and other countries. Standard and settlement values of seismic accelerations are defined for a distance of up to 15 km from faults where the earthquake intensity reaches 10—11 points MSK. It is recommended to forbid new construction at a distance closer than 10 km from faults, and to apply the seismic-control measures (supported by the patents of the Russian Federation № 2307212, № 2334843) at a distance from 10 to 15 km.

Key words: seismic safety, the North Caucasus, tectonic faults, standard and settlement influences.

ON THE POST-TECHNOGENIC DISTURBANCES IN THE ROCK MASSIF

V.L. I'lchenko*, S.G. Medvedeva**

* Geological Institute, Kola Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences ul. Fersmana 14, Apatity, Murmansk oblast, 184209 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** Geological Faculty, Moscow State University
Leninskiye Gory 1, Moscow, 119991 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A scenario of post-technogenic disturbances in the mountain massif is considered in terms of wave geodynamics for a system developing from an extended excavation at great depth up to sinkholes at the Earth's surface caused by the phenomenon of step-by-step zonal disintegration of rocks ("quantization effect") around deep excavations. It is found out that this phenomenon is largely due to the influence of standing waves, initiated by oscillations at the mine working boundaries; and that the massif resistance to destruction depends to a great extent on the excavation outlines. Man-made mine workings include underground storages of hazardous substances (repositories) designed for extremely long periods of use, which requires a great safety factor and stability of these objects to any external influences. These conditions can be ensured by designing the repository configuration, which would rule out the possible generation of standing waves on their boundaries.

Key words: sinkholes at the Earth's surface, zonal disintegration of rocks, mine workings, standing waves, repositories.

CHANGES IN COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF KOSHELEV VOLCANO ROCKS UNDER TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE EFFECTS (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY)

V. V. Shanina*, K. M. Gerke*****, A. Yu. Bychkov*, D. V. Korost*

* Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119991 Russia.
E-mail: viosha@mail. ru
** Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninsky pr., 38/1, Moscow, 119334 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
*** CSIRO Land and Water, Waite Laboratories, PB2 Glen Osmond SA, 5064 Australia

Experimental study of hydrothermal alteration for Koshelev's volcano rocks composition, structure and properties was carried out. Changes in composition, structure and properties of rocks were measured using standard laboratory techniques, X-ray microtomography scanner and pore-scale modeling. The influence of primary rock features on nitration, deformation and stress-strain rock properties changes was shown.

Key words: properties of soil, computer X-ray microtomography, hydrothermal processes, andesites, basalts, Kamchatka, Nizhne-Koshelevskoye thermal field, modeling of conditions.