"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 1, 2014

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 1, 2014

Principles of sustainainable development of terrains in karst regions and some examples from their practical application V. V. Tolmachev
 
 
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Geotechnical and geoenvironmental conditions for conserving historical architectural complexes
V. V. Dmitriev
10
Groundwater resources in the Kolyma river valley and their change by the operation of the Kolyma hydropower plant
V. E. Glotov, L. P. Glotova, M. V. Ushakov
20
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Soil pollution with metals in the town of Tarko-Sale
A. P. Sergeev, E. M. Baglaeva, 1. E. Subbotina
28
Features of different forms of trace elements in bottom sediments of Ivankovskoe water reservoir
O. A. Lipatnikova, D. V. Grichuk, 1. L. Grigorieva, A. I. Khasanova, T. V. Shestakova, A.Yu. Bychkov, S. M. Il'ina, V. V. Pukhov
37
UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL OF WASTES
Matrix for immobilization of the waste from pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel
S. V. Yudintsev, B. 1. Nikonov, M. S. Nikol'skyi, B. I. Omelyanenko, A. A. Lizin, S. V. Tomilin, A. G. Osipenko
49
NATURAL AND HUMAN-INDUCED PROCESSES
Typification of cities in Uzbekistan for seismic vulnerability assessment
N. G. Mavlyanova
56
SOIL AND ROCK ENGINEERING
Assessment of effective modulus of total deformation in sandy massif reinforced by Geocomposite
D. 1. Mogilevtseva
66
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Geoinformational support of hydrodynamic modeling for assessing efficiency of the designed drainage system in the Usolskii district of Bereznyaki, Perm krai
S. A. Krasil'nikova, P. A. Krasil'nikov, A. V. Konoplev
80
HISTORY OF SCIENCE
Fifty years of liquid radioactive waste disposal — practical and scientific results
A. I. Rybal'chenko, V. M. Kurochkin, B. G. Ershov, E. V. Zakharova, I. M. Kosareva, A. A. Zubkov
86
BOOK REVIEW
About applied hydrochemistry
A. V. Kudel'skii, L. P. Norova
91

 

PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TERRAINS IN KARST REGIONS AND SOME EXAMPLES FROM THEIR PRACTICAL APPLICATION

V. V. Tolmachev

Karst-Control and Bank Protection Joint-Stock Co., ul. Gastello 10, Dzerzhinsk 606019 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

A number of the current Russian Federal laws declare the UN concept of sustainable development of terrains related to engineering and environmental protection. The article presents some principles of the concept application to construction in karst regions characterized by specific background and typical objective preconditions. Either misunderstanding or failing to follow the principles is very likely to cause negative situations (such as intensification of karst development processes up to an unallowable extent, considerable pollution of the geological environment, accidents on the construction sites, etc.). Some examples from building practice on karst are given. General recommendations on practical exploration in karst are presented in the view of the concept of sustainable development of karst terrains.

Keywords: sustainable development of terrains, karst regions, karst-induced accidents, pollution of geological environment, standards and regulations.

GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR CONSERVING HISTORICAL ARCHITECTURAL COMPLEXES

V. V. Dmitriev

Russian State Geological Prospecting University named after Sergo Ordzhonikidze
ul. Mihlukho-Maklaya 23, Moscow, 117997 Russia.
E-mail: v. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The specific features of monastic and museum historical architectural complexes historical and cultural monuments - are considered. The problems in studying these complexes are formulated. The main factors and conditions of destruction are analyzed for historical natural-technical objects (HNTO); and the specific features of formation of historical natural-technical systems (HNTS) are studied. The conditions of formation of these systems are considered, and the HNTS monitoring aim, problems, scope, and implementation features are justified.

Keywords: historical natural-technical object, historical natural-technical system, monastery, kremlin, monitoring, geoenvironmental conditions, HNTO landscape-climatic conditions, HNTO geotechnical conditions, design features of historical structures.

GROUNDWATER RESOURCES IN THE KOLYMA RIVER VALLEY AND THEIR CHANGE BY THE OPERATION OF THE KOLYMA HYDROPOWER PLANT

V. E. Glotov, L. P. Glotova, M. V. Ushakov

North-East Interdisciplinary Research Institute, Fast East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Portovaya 14, Magadan, 685000 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; glotova.neisri.ru; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article shows the transformation in the formation conditions of natural freshwater resources as affected by the water reservoir construction in the Kolyma River valley. A many-fold increase in water resources in the tail-water during the winter low-water season is noted, and the appearance of new groundwater recharge area is registered in the river valley between the reservoir upper reaches and Ust'-Srednekan settlement. An increase in seepage loss from the reservoir cannot be ruled out, the more so after the construction of Ust-Srednekansk hydropower plant.

Keywords: reservoir, downstream, winter low-water season, water resources, geoenvironmental investigation.

SOIL POLLUTION WITH METALS IN THE TOWN OF TARKO-SALE

A. P. Sergeev, E. M. Baglaeva, I. E. Subbotina

Institute of Industrial Ecology, Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. S.Kovalevskoi 20, Yekaterinburg, 620990 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The spatial distribution of soil cover pollution with soluble and insoluble forms of metals is analyzed on the basis of ecological and geochemical survey of the Tarko-Sale territory. It is found that the pollution of soil cover with the insoluble form of chromium is non-uniform within the industrial city territory. It is shown that the pollutant solubility has a significant influence on the spatial distribution of pollution.

Keywords: spatial distribution; technogenic pollution; soil survey; soluble form; insoluble form.

FEATURES OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF IVANKOVSKOE WATER RESERVOIR

O. A. Lipatnikova*, D. V. Grichuk*, I.L. Grigorieva**, A. I. Khasanova*, T. V. Shestakova*, A. Yu. Bychkov*, S. M. H'ina***, V. V. Puhov*

* Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. *Institute of Water Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Gubkina 3, Moscow, 119333 Russia.
E-mail: IrinaO This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
***University Paul Sabatier, Laboratory Geosciences Environment Toulouse, avenue Edouard Belin 14, Toulouse, 31400 France. E-mail: svetlana. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Trace elements in bottom sediments can be present in different forms, but mobile forms are of the greatest interest since they are the most plant-available. The study of different forms of trace elements in bottom sediments of the Ivankovskoe water reservoir is presented in this paper. The Tessier sequential extraction scheme and the ICP-MS method as an analytical completion are used. It has been shown that Mn, Ba and Cd are mainly presented in exchangeable and carbonate forms; Cu and Ni are mainly associated with organic matter; and 50% of mobile and potentially mobile forms of Zn, Pb и Со are related to iron and manganese hydroxides. Effects of particle size and organic matter content in sediments on distribution of mobile and potentially mobile forms of trace elements have been revealed.

Keywords: bottom sediments, different forms of trace elements, sequential extraction, Ivankovskoe reservoir.

MATRIX FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF THE WASTE FROM PYROCHEMICAL REPROCESSING OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

S. V. Yudintsev*, B. S. Nikonov*, M. S. Nikol'skyi*, B.I. Omelyanenko*, A.A. Liziii**, S. V. Tomilin**, A. G. Osipenko**

*Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetnyi per. 35, Moscow, 119017 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
**Joint Stock Company "State Scientific Center - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors", Dimitrovgrad-10, Ulyanovshaya oblast, 433510 Russia.

The structure of the matrix with imitator of the waste from pyrochemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel was investigated. Composition of imitators is defined by the properties of the radioactive oxide residue produced during processing nitride and metallic fuels at SSC "NIIAR". Murataite-based ceramics are selected for isolation of the waste due to the capacity of its structure to include a large number of different elements. Murataite dominates in the sample and contains most of the actinides and rare-earth elements. The other phases of the matrix are titanates (crichtonite, zirconolite, perovskite, rutile) and alkaline-earth molybdates. The latter are highly soluble in hot water, so for 300 years required for the decay of Sr-90, contact of the matrix with underground water should be prevented by a corrosion-resistant container and clay buffer. An alternative way to isolate the wastes is synthesis of matrix by melting route in an inert gas medium to stabilize Mo (IV), which enters the titanate phase. This will prevent the formation of water-soluble molybdates.

Keywords: irradiated nuclear fuel, pyrochemical reprocessing, high-level radioactive waste, immobilization, muratate—based matrix, molybdates.

TYPIFICATION OF CITIES IN UZBEKISTAN FOR SEISMIC VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT

N. G. Mavlyanova

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulanskii per. 13, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Uzbekistan is located in the middle of Central Asia within a high-seismic zone. Approximately 55% of the Republic territory is located in the zone of expected seismic intensity Vll (by MSK-scale) and higher. More than 120 cities are situated within these seismically dangerous areas. Urban development in Uzbekistan has its specific features related to its ancient history and modern construction. For preliminary assessment of seismic vulnerability, cities in Uzbekistan can be grouped into 4 basic types. The first type encompasses ancient cities (some of them of more than 2000-year-old history), initially formed in the place of old big settlements and now transformed into major industrial centers. Buildings in these cities have been constructed during several centuries, being characterized by the complexity and a great variety of dwelling types ranging from ancient structures to modern buildings. The second group comprises new cities developed in the last 50 years as the advanced industrial centers. Most of the buildings in these areas are multi-storey houses. The third group includes ancient and new small towns characterized by a low level of industrial development and prevailing agriculture. Most of the buildings are one-storey individual houses. The bulk of residential buildings in the Republic were constructed using local clay materials without seismic-control design.

Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, occupies a special position. After a strong earthquake in 1966, Tashkent was significantly destroyed and then was rebuilt to become a new and modern city.

Key words: seismic hazard, seismic vulnerability, Uzbekistan.

ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVE MODULUS OF TOTAL DEFORMATION IN SANDY MASSIF REINFORCED BY GEOCOMPOSITE

D. I. Mogilevtseva

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ulanskii per. 13, Moscow, 101000 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The method is presented of assessing the effective modulus of total deformation in sandy massifs reinforced by Geocomposite method. The effective modulus of total deformation is evaluated in separate reinforced geotechnical bodies. The total deformation modulus is calculated using the Raymond standard test for ground massifs and the reverse mixture rule. The results of plate-load test for reinforced geotechnical bodies are given for comparison. The effective modulus of total deformation for the whole reinforced massif is estimated using two methods. First, this modulus is calculated using the Foundation computer software proceeding from the effective modulus of total deformation for separate geotechnical bodies. Second, the similar calculation was made proceeding from the actual settling of buildings obtained from monitoring. The data obtained were compared with the calculation results gained with superposition method.

Keywords: sandy soil, soil massif, Geocomposite, effective modulus of total deformation, settling of buildings.

GEOINFORMATIONAL SUPPORT OF HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING FOR ASSESSING EFFICIENCY OF THE DESIGNED DRAINAGE SYSTEM IN THE USOLSKII DISTRICT OF BEREZNYAKI, PERM KRAI

S.A. KrasiPnikova*, P.A. Krasil'nikov**, A.V. Konoplev**

* Perm State National Research University, ul. Bukireva 15, Perm, 614000 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** Natural Science Institute, Perm State National Research University, ul. Genkelya 4, Perm, 614000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper describes the benefits of using GIS at the first stage of hydrodynamic modelling, i.e., accumulation of initial data. A created quasi-3D model of the flow is described and calculations are provided for assessing the drainage system effectiveness. Special attention is paid for visualization of the obtained results and their presentation in cartographic form.

Keywords: hydrodynamic modeling, geoinformatics, cartography, flooding.

FIFTY YEARS OF LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL - PRACTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC RESULTS

A. I. Rybal'chenko*, V. M. Kurochkin*, B. G. Ershov**, E. V. Zakharova**, I. M. Kosareva**, and A. A. Zubkov***

* OJSC VNIPIpromtechnologii, Kashirskoe sh. 33, Moscow, 115409 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,Leninskii pr. 31, Moscow, 119991 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
*** OJSC Syberian Chemical Enterprise, ul. Kurchatova 1, Seversk, Tomsk oblast,
636039 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper communicates in brief the main stages of solving one of the most acute modern problems, i.e., utilization and deep disposal of liquid toxic and radioactive (LRW) waste in the absorbing horizons of the sedimentary mantle. The experience in collaborative work is described performed by OJSC VNIPIpromtechnologii, planning and research Minsredmash (Ministry for Medium Engineering Industry) organizations, scientific institutions at the USSR Academy of Sciences, etc. aimed at prospecting sites for LRW burial in the absorbing horizons of the sedimentary mantle, as well as at search for the disposal-preparatory technique, planning and constructing of disposal sites. The already operating sites of deep LRW disposal are characterized.

Keywords: liquid radioactive waste, deep disposal.