"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 3, 2014

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 3, 2014

Ecological and geochemical transformafion of the supergene zone under the influence of oil technogenesis
R.F. Abdrakhmanov, V.G.Рopov
195
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Assessment of anthropogenic effect of surface ponding and hydrochemical conditions in the city of Yakutsk
TV. A. Pavlova, M. V. Danzanova, S. I. Serikov
207
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Quantitative evaluation of runoff of global radiocesium fallout in landscapes of the Ob' river basin
/. N. Semenkov, A. Yu. Miroshnikov
215
Geoecological studies of soil contamination in the area of aluminum plant
N. V. Golovnykh, V. A. Bychinskii, L. M. Filimonova, О. М. Glazunov
224
NATURAL AND HUMAN-INDUCED PROCESSES
Seismicity of Russia in 2011
M. V. Kolomiets, A. I. Ruzaykin, О. Е. Starovoit
233
Ecological and economic assessment of technogenic consequences of geoenvironmental changes as the basis for transition to the sustainable development model
V. N. Ekzaryan
242
SOIL AND ROCK ENGINEERING
The soil streingth in massif
G. P. Postoev
252
Active porosity and its influence on physico-mechanical properties of clay
V. I. Osipov, F. S. Karpenko, N. A. Rumyantseva
262
GEOENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN URBANIZED AREAS
Anthropogenic factor in geoecological assessment of territories
V. G. Zaikanov, Т. В. Minakova
270
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
Development of the geoenvironmental survey procedure for the construction and operation of trunk pipelines in the permafrost zone
E. N. Logunova, D. O. Sergeev
277

 

ECOLOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE SUPERGENE ZONE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF OIL TECHNOGENESIS

R. F. Abdrakhmanov, V. G. Popov

Institute of Geology, Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences
ul. K. Marksa 16/2, Ufa, 450077 Russia.
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The paper highlights the general trends in transformation of hydrogeological conditions within the oil and gas fields that are developed by the method of stratal pressure maintenance. We considered the vertical hydrogeochemical zoning of the Volga-Ural oil and gas basin, composition of fresh water and oil-field brines, peculiarities of mixing them in arched- and depression-type oil fields under the influence of technogenesis. As a result of long-term (1971-2011) hydrolithomonitoring with the trend analysis of hydrogeological data, a tendency in ecological and geochemical transformation of fresh groundwater and clay deposits in the aeration zone has been revealed. An original water-helium method is proposed to distinguish between surface and deep sources of pollution and to identify pathways of oil brines to fresh water of supergene zone.

Keywords: oil field, brines, fresh water, soil aeration zone, sources and routes of contamination, methods of research.

ASSESSMENT OF ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECT ON SURFACE PONDING AND HYDROCHEMICAL CONDITIONS IN THE CITY OF YAKUTSK

N. A. Pavlova, M. V. Danzanova, S. I. Serikov

Melnikov Permafrost Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences Merzlotnaya ul. 36, Yakutsk, 677010 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The factors influencing surface ponding and bogging in the city of Yakutsk are examined. A schematic map is given that shows the location of human-made barrages affecting surface runoff. Modification of hydrochemical environment by a barrage is demonstrated for one of the urban districts. Recommendations are given for drainage system selection depending on available relief, hydrographic network geometry and building density.

Keywords: surface ponding, surface runoff, suprapermafrost water, human-made barrage, drainage.

QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF RUNOFF OF GLOBAL RADIOCESIUM FALLOUT IN LANDSCAPES OF THE OB'RIVER BASIN

I. N. Semenkov, A. Yu. Miroshnikov

Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetny per. 35, Moscow, 119017 Russia.
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A global fallout cesium-137 runoff was evaluated in soils of the three 1st order watersheds in taiga and forest-steppe landscape zones of the Ob' river basin. The data of cesium-137 runoff were extrapolated to arable semi-humid (0.39-0.46 kCi) and non-disturbed humid river basins (0.54-5.59 kCi) proceeding from the published data on sediment delivery ratio and original river basins classification. Global fallout cesium-137 runoff from the Ob' river basin is 0.93-6.05 kCi (less than 4% of the total storage).

Keywords: landscape-geochemical arena, caesium-137, geographic information system (GIS), atmospheric global radioactive fallouts, geochemical barrier zone.

GEOECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOIL CONTAMINATION IN THE AREA OF ALUMINUM PLANT

N. V. Golovnykh, V. A. Bychinskii, L. M. Filimonova, О. М. Glazunov

Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Favorskogo la, Irkutsk 664033 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The main aspects and methods of solving geoecological tasks are considered in the article by the example of the Shelekhovsky industrial region. The study of snow-cover composition near the aluminum plant has shown that soils are the main storage medium of toxic components. Aerosols transferred to a distance of up to 15-20 km appear to be the principal form of pollution. Technogenic substances accumulated by snow cover are fixed in the soil and transform its biochemical parameters. The assessment of emission impact on soil properties allows us to control the technogenic load. Emissions should be decreased to a level necessary for maintaining the favorable ecological situation (lithophilic elements by 13 times, heavy metals by 26 times) via modernization of technology, minimization and a recycling of waste, and should be accompanied by environmental protection measures.

Keywords: snow survey, aluminum production, gas-dust emission, geochemical monitoring, anthropogenic load.

SEISMICITY OF RUSSIA IN 2011

M. V. Kolomiets*, A. I. Ruzaykin**, О. Е. Starovoit*

*Geophysical Survey, Russian Academy of Sciences,
pr. Lenina 189, Obninsk, Kaluga oblast, 249035 Russia.
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**Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulansky per. 13, bid. 2. Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Results of seismicity monitoring in the territory of Russia for the year of 2011 are presented. The macro-seismic effect of felt earthquakes manifestation in the major active seismic zones of Russia is analyzed.

Keywords: seismicity, active seismic regions, earthquakes, macroseismic effect.

ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOGENIC CONSEQUENCES OF GEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AS THE BASIS FOR TRANSITION TO THE SUSTSAINABLE DEVELOPMENT MODEL

V. N. Ekzaryan

Russian State Geological Prospecting University, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 23, Moscow, 117997 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The performed analysis of the current state in assessing the economic efficiency of nature-protection expenses allowed us to develop the technological scheme of calculating ecological and economic efficiency of nature-protection measures. The scheme uses the parameter of "conditionally prevented" economic damage. The formula for assessing the ecological and economic efficiency is developed.

Keywords: ecological and economic assessment, technogenic consequences, geological environment, sustainable development.

THE SOIL STRENGTH IN MASSIF

G. P. Postoev

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ulanskii per. 13, bid. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
The strength of clay soil in a sample as determined by the Coulomb-Mohr method is considered. In a massif, the soil strength is regulated by the stress state. Gravitational pressure on the soil, exceeding its structural strength, produces the active horizontal pressure in the soil and forms an active limit equilibrium in the initial state of massif.

The force disturbance in the massif in the form of reduced vertical stresses in the local area due to the anthropogenic impact (a quarry, an open pit), due to development of a landslide on the slopes or karst sinkhole over a cavity in karstified rocks, leads to the transformation of the initial stress condition, manifestation of soil deformations, and its strength change. New criteria are proposed for determining the limit state of soil massif in interaction with the local force disturbance.

Keywords: soil strength in the sample, structural strength, coefficient of lateral pressure, active limit equilibrium, force disturbance, a model of stress-strain state (SSS), the peculiarities of changes in a SSS of a massif overcompacted clay, landslide formation, karst sinkhole formation.

ACTIVE POROSITY AND ITS INFLUENCE ON PHYSICO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY

V. I.Osipov, F. S. Karpenko, and N. A. Rumyantseva

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences Ulanskii per. 13, bid. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The definition of active porosity first given by B.N. Gumenskii is revised. The active porosity is taken to mean the bulk porosity minus the pore space volume occupied by adsorbed water. The methods are discussed of calculating the active porosity by finding the adsorbed water volume at the maximal air-dry moisture of soil and subtracting this value from the bulk porosity. It is shown that active porosity is important not only for assessing the reservoir and infiltration properties of soils but also for a number of parameters used in soil mechanics.

Keywords: intra-lattice swelling, active porosity, maximal air-dry moisture, plasticity index, compres-sion coefficient.

ANTHROPOGENIC FACTOR IN GEOECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF TERRITORIES

V. G. Zaikanov, Т. В. Minakova

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulanskii per. 13, bid. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The paper substantiates the necessity of anthropogenic and geosystem approach to the geoecological assessment of territories. The role of anthropogenic factors in the assessment of geoecological stability of geosystems is analyzed by the example of the subjects of the Russian Federation and protected areas. Geoecological stability is controlled by three groups of factors, i.e., natural-resource potential, anthropogenic load, and consequences of EGP development. Exclusion of anthropogenic load from geoecological assessment increases the stability level by several ranks in natural-technogenic and anthropogenic systems. The stability increases by one level in case the latter factor is excluded from the assessment. Disregarding of both factors of negative impact keeps the level of geosystem stability the same. This testifies to the natural-resource potential as a leading index of geoecological assessment.

Keywords: anthropogenic and geosystem approach; natural, natural-technogenic and technogenic systems; geoecological assessment; anthropogenic factor; geoecological stability.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE GEOENVIRONMENTAL SURVEY PROCEDURE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF TRUNK PIPELINES IN THE PERMAFROST ZONE

E. N. Logunova, D. O. Sergeev

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ulansky per. 13, bid. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia.
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Essential results of the development of pipeline geoenvironmental survey method are shown. The earlier classifier of environmental disturbances has been modified. The indicators of each type of environmental disturbance are linked with environmental legislation paragraphs. The authors took into account the permafrost influence on the environmental response to the anthropogenic impact. The new classifier may be used for the interpretation of field data on trunk pipeline observations in the cryolithozone.

Keywords: geoenvironmental survey, trunk pipeline, environmental disturbance, construction.