"GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 1, 2015

Contents of "GEOEKOLOGIYA" No 1, 2015

Seismic risk assessment for the Greater Sochi area
V. I. Osipov, V. I. Larionov, S. P. Sushchev, N. I. Frolova, A. N. Ugarov, S. V. Kozharinov, Т. B. Barskaya
 
FUNCTIONING OF NATURAL AND NATURAL ANTHROPOGENIC SYSTEMS
Construction of wind-power generator at the dump of the worked-out open pit
P. Meyer, G. Breitschprecher, M. Dennhardt, U. Glesener
20
ENVIRONMENT CONTAMINATION
Highly toxic elements in snow cover in the Blagoveshchensk territory
L. M. Pavlova, V. I. Radomskaya, D. V. Yusupov
27
Contamination of geosy stems with radioactive strontium in the area of regional radioactive waste repository
G. V. Lavrentyeva, I. I. Silin, B. I. Synzynys
36
NATURAL AND HUMAN-INDUCED PROCESSES
Structural and geodynamic conditions in the junction zone between the Siberian platforms and the Altai-Sayan orogen
V. M. Makeev, S. V. Grigor'eva
47
Landslide and mudflow activity in the Greater Sochi area and its variation in the beginning of the 21SI century
В. М. Krestin, I. V. Malneva
58
SOIL AND ROCK ENGINEERING
Pelrophysical properties of metamorphic rocks from the massif in the Lake Chudzyavr area
F. F. Gorbatsevich, M. V. Kovalevskiy, V. R. Vetrin, and О. М. Trishina
67
RESEARCH METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
The aspects of assessing complexity of engineering geological conditions
V. V. Pendin, D. D. Shuhina
73
Hydrobiological methods of mapping hydrocryological situation in mountainous areas of east Transbaikalia
F. I. Enikeev
81
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
The study of radioactive contamination in bottom deposits of the Iset' River within Yekaterinburg
D. S. Tyagunov, E. N. Rybakov
91
PEOPLE OF SCIENCE
In the memory of Aleksandr Dmitrievich Potapov
 
95

 

SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE GREATER SOCHI AREA

V. I. Osipov*, V. I. Larionov*, S. P. Sushchev**, N. I. Frolova*,

A. N. Ugarov*, S. V. Kozharinov*, T. V. Barskaya*
* Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ulanskii per., 13, bld. 2, Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
** Extreme Situations Research Center,
Podkolokol'nyj per., 16/2, Moscow, 109028 Russia
Earthquakes are among the other natural phenomena often resulting in loss of life and significant eco-nomic damage. According to the statistical data of International Centre for Research on the Disasters Epidemiology (www.cred.be) earthquakes are among the leaders in all indicators: the number of fatalities, number of injured people, and the caused economic loss.
The well-known strategy for damage and social loss reduction implies preventive measures in high-risk zones, which are identified by mapping with different details.

About 5% of the Russian Federation territory is referred to the areas characterized by a high level of seismic hazard, where earthquakes with intensities I = 8-9 and 9-10 according to the MMSK-86 scale may occur. Caucasus is one of the most hazardous and densely populated regions in the country. On the occasion of the 2014 Olympic Games the seismic individual risk was assessed for the Greater Sochi ter-ritory including the Olympic sites. The paper analyzes the results of seismic risk monitoring, obtained in 2007 and 2013.

Keywords: seismic risk, vulnerability of elements at risk, remote sensing of the Earth, photo panoramas.

CONSTRUCTION OF WIND-POWER GENERATOR WTTH THE CAPACITY 7.5 MW AT THE DUMP OF THE WORKED-OUT OPEN PIT

F. Meyer*, G. Breitschprecher*, M. Dennhardt*, U. Glesener**

* CD M Consult GmbH, Bouchestrafie 12, Berlin, 12435 Germany.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , www. cdm. com
**Enercon GmbH, Dreekamp 5, 26605 Aurich, Germany.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , www.enercon.de
At Eurospeedway Lausitzring, situated in Lower Lusatia, a wind turbine of Enercon was built. The turbine will achieve an electrical efficiency of 7.5 MW with a hub height of 131 m and a rolor diameter of 126 m. The working panel lays within the former inner overburden dump of the lignite mine of Meuro. The predominant landfill can be described as a mixed very heterogeneous soil, endangered of liquefaction.
For improving the ground conditions vibro compactions (VC) and vibro displacements (VDD) were car-ried out. Shortly after completing the VC control measurements by CPT and seismic measurements were carried out to prove the soil compaction. By comprehensive calculations the CPT results enabled a broad improvement of the vibro-displacement-grid compared to first calculations. The following paper com-ments on the conditioning of soil al the foundation area and crane pad and presents relevant corner points

of the quality management concerning the completion and monitoring of the soil improvement. Thereby it will be focused on geotechnical characteristics of heterogeneous landfill soil.

Keywords: wind-power generator, dump, vibrocompaction, static sounding, open-pit.

HIGHLY TOXIC ELEMENTS IN SNOW COVER IN THE BLAGOVESHCHENSK TERRITORY

L. M. Pavlova*, V. I. Radomskaya*, D. V. Yusupov**

* Institute of Geology and Nature Management, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences; Relochniy per. 1, Blagoveshchensk, 675000 Russia.
E-mail: [email protected] ru
** Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk, 634050 Russia. E-mail: [email protected] ru

Snow testing in the urbanized territory of the low-industrial Far East Blagoveshchensk city allowed us to estimate not only the present slate of air, but also the quantitative and qualitative composition of future migrants, i.e., insoluble compounds of highly toxic elements (As, Se, Sb, Те, Tl, Bi, Th, U) coming to underlying soils within the atmospheric dust.

Keywords: snow testing, urbanized territory, highly toxic elements, radionuclides, air contamination

CONTAMINATION OF GEOSYSTEMS WITH RADIOACTIVE STRONTIUM IN THE AREA OF REGIONAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY

G. V. Lavrentyeva*, ***, I. I. Silin**, B. I. Synzynys*

*Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, branch of the National Research Nuclear University МЕРhl, Studgorodok, 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region, 249040 Russia.
E-mail: [email protected] ru
**Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Crystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMGRE),
ui. Veresaeva 15, Moscow, 121357Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
***Kalyga branch, Bauman Moscow State Technical University,
ul. Bazhenova, 2, Kaluga, 248000 Russia.

The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by 90Sr coming with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical distribution of 90Sr by the soil profile to a depth of 2-3 m is analyzed. The areas of radioactive contamination exceeding in magnitude the minimum significant activity level (by lkBq/kg in accordance with RSS-99/2009) contract with the depth for the tested soil layers, being equal to 1808, 302, and 181 m2 for the layers of 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm, respectively. It is found that 90Sr is accumulated at a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy floodplain terrace. The radiation dose is calculated to the ground shellfish spe-cies Bradyhaena fruticum, accumulating 90Sr in their shells. The screening doses exceed magnitude 2.4 u,mGr/day to 41% of the territory. This points to the excess of the acceptable risk level (5%) for a given population of shellfish. The excess 90Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains.

Keywords: storage of radiaoctive waste; 90Sr; migration in soil; water; terrestrial mollusks.

STRUCTURAL AND GEODYNAMIC CONDITIONS IN THE JUNCTION ZONE BETWEEN THE SIBERIAN PLATFORMS AND THE ALTAI-SAYAN OROGEN

V. M. Makeev, S. V. Grigor'eva

Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience, Russian Academy of Sciences Ulanskii per. 13, bid. 2. Moscow, 101000 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The structural and geodynamic conditions in the junction zone between the West Siberian plate, the Siberian platform and the Altai-Sayan orogenic area, which represent heterogeneous structures of dif-ferent age, are studied in connection with the disposal of toxic waste from the Krasnoyarsk mining and chemical enterprise. The geodynamic safety of this territory is assessed proceeding from the study of ancient structures, including faults of various morphological and kinematic types, as well as neotectonic deformations. The scheme of structural-geodynamic zoning is compiled showing the neotectonic flexure structures and the major active faults from the single viewpoint of geodynamic system evolution.

Keywords: neotectonic structures, structural and geodynamic zoning, active faults, flexure deformation, lineaments, platform and orogenic structures, deep geodynamic systems.

LANDSLIDE AND MUDFLOW ACTIVITY IN THE GREATER SOCHI AREA AND ITS VARIATION IN THE BEGINNING OF XXI CENTURY

B. M. Krestin, I. V. Malneva

Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrogeology
and Engineering Geology (FGUP VSEGJNGEO)
Zelenyi, Noginsk region, Moscow oblast, 142452 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The data about landslides and mudflows manifested in the Greater Sochi and Krasnaya Polyana areas in recent years are analyzed. The evidence is used about variation in their activity because of natural and technogenic impact during the preparation to the 2014 Winter Olympics. The specific features of process intensification in 2012-2013 are pointed out.

Keywords: activity, mudflows, landslides, technogenic impact, geological environment, hazard.

PETROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS FROM THE MASSIF IN THE LAKE CHUDZYAVR AREA

F. F. Gorbatsevich, M. V. Kovalevskiy, V. R. Vetrin, О. М. Trishina

Geological Institute, Kola Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fersmana 14, Apatity,
184209 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Petrophysical properties of rock samples from the massif in the Lake Chudzyavr area have been studied. The rocks at high-temperature amphibolite and granulite facies - enderbites, gabbro, tonalile and garnet-biotite gneisses are characterized by a widely variable range of petrophysical properties. Compression and shear wave velocities for rocks under deep conditions and at the surface have been determined. A wide variation in the elastic anisotropy indices (Ap = 1.72-10.0%, B$ = 1.53-22%) has been revealed.

Keywords: rocks, metamorphism, compression and shear wave velocities, anisotropy.

THE ASPECTS OF ASSESSING COMPLEXITY OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

V. V. Pendin, D. D. Shubina

Russian State Geological Prospecting University, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 23, Moscow, 117997Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article considers different aspects of assessing the engineering-geological conditions complexity. Methodical recommendations are given on using the integrated quantitative assessment and information theory measures for calculating the complexity of engineering geological conditions.

Keywords: engineering geological conditions, the complexity of engineering geological conditions, in-tegrated quantitative assessment, entropy.

HYDROBIOLOGICAL METHODS OF MAPPING HYDROCRYOLOGICAL SITUATION IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF EAST TRANSBAIKALIA

F. I. Enikeev

Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Siberian Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Nedorezova 16a, Chita, 672014 Russia.
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
For specifying hydrological, hydrogeological, and hydroeryological conditions in mountainous areas of Transbaikalia, we propose to use ichthyological methods as a part of landscape indication.
The peculiarities of seasonal and perennial migration of freshwater salmon in Transbaikalia are re-vealed caused by the changing annual and perennial surface- and groundwater flows. The specific fea-tures of fish behavior are noticed upon modifying the valley morphology, river catchment, and river flow turn. The reasons of forming isolated habitats of aquatic vertebrates distant from their historical environ-ment are explained in terms of paleogeography.

The adaptation degree of salmon population to the current hydrocryologieal conditions is revealed in this region. Their conservative "behavior" preserved since the last glaeiation in this part of Asia is assessed.

Keywords: hydrogeology, geocryology, landscape study, salmon family, paleogeography, isolated habi-tats, Transbaikalia

THE STUDY OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN BOTTOM DEPOSITS OF THE ISET RIVER WITHIN YEKATERINBURG

D. S. Tyagunov, E. N. Rybakov

Bulashevich Institute of Geophysics, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences
ul. Amundsena 100, Yekaterinburg, 620016 Russia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The article presents the results of the studies in cesium-137 pollution of bottom sediments of the Iset River within Yekaterinburg. The measurement equipment and technique are described. Prerequisites for the city pond pollution with cesium-137 are indicated. Conclusion is made that virtually no precipitation of radioactive contaminants is found in the sites of relatively fast river flow. The activity of Cs-137 is registered at the background level. For the most part, accumulation takes place within the slow river flow or in stagnant sites, where the activity of cesium-137 in silt sediments may 5 times exceed the background. As proceeds from the investigation results, the nuclear fall-out of different origin is washed off from thawing snow or rainwater to the industrial sewage to be accumulated with time in the city pond sill.

Keywords: bottom deposits, cesium-137, radioactivity, silt.