Laboratory of Soil and Rock Engineering and Mechanics

Chief of laboratory: Victor Ivanovich Osipov
Academician RAS, Professor, Dr.Sci. (Geology and Mineralogy)
Tel. (495)623-31-11
Fax: (495) 623-18-86
e-mail: direct@geoenv.ru

 

The laboratory research is mainly focused at solving fundamental and applied problems in engineering geology and geoenvironment in urban areas, the development of methods of increasing the load-bearing capacity of weak soils and rocks, and the assessment of natural safety of technosphere components.

Main research fields:

  • The study of composition, structure, status, and properties of undisturbed soils and rocks (for regional survey) and those subject to hypergenic and human-induced transformations (including basements of engineering structures).

  • The development of methods and techniques of artificial improvement of soil-massif properties. Application to construction practice of the original "Geocomposite" (http://www.geomassiv.com) method of artificial reinforcing soil massifs.

  • The assessment of landslide stability of natural and human-made slopes and development of landslide-control measures.

  • Solving general problems in environmental geosceince, e.g., the contamination of geoenvironment components, the depletion of mineral resources, the global climate changes, the intensification of natural hazardous processes, etc.

  • The analysis of conditions and factors of natural disasters, as well as their impact on country economy and population.

  • The study of natural hazards in urban areas. The development of concept and methodological fundamentals of assessment, control, prediction, and prevention of natural hazards in cities.

  • The development of draft systems of arranging combined geoenvironmental monitoring for urban areas and large industrial objects.

  • The development of procedures of compiling maps, model maps, and legends to maps concerning geoenvironment, technosphere, and geoenvironmental conditions (including natural hazards and risks) for different areas and to various scales (ranging from detail to general maps).

  • Generalization and analysis of problems regarding the prospects in applying different methods of subsurface disposal of hydrocarbons and hazardous wastes to permafrost and rock salt.

  • Participation in governmental ecological expert examinations of major engineering projects.

  • Participation in the development and improvement of norms and standards in environment protection and rational use, as well as in prevention of natural disasters and mitigation of their consequences.


Main research achievements in 2002.

  • The thematic volume "Natural Hazards and Society" of the 6-volume edition entitled "Natural Hazards in Russia" was issued. The book covers general regularities and main tendencies of natural disaster manifestation in the aspect of social disturbance; as well as the influence of population growth and global climate changes on the development of human-induced and natural hazards in Russia. The volume is meant for experts in protection of population and engineering structures from natural disasters, heads of institutions and departments, planning organizations, insurance companies, and wide range of readers.

  • The technique and procedure of "Geocomposite" method was further improved in reinforcing soil foundation massifs. The successful experience was gained not only in reinforcing soil massifs but also in elimination tilting of already erected buildings (including those with large number of storeys.) The plate foundation of the 22-storey dwelling house has been straightened in Moscow (Filevskii blv., res. 7, bld. 14).

  • The first positive results were obtained in reinforcing landslide-prone slopes in urban area using "Geocomposite" method. The slope soils have been stabilized at the construction site of dwelling complex "Zolotye klyuchi" (Moscow, Minskaya str., res.726, bld. 1). The 12-m-thick rigid reinforced soil massif was made on the slope, which provides absolute slope stability.

  • The additional geological and geoecological research was performed for scientific maintenance and environmental substantiation of the project "Lefortovo park reconstruction'" (designed by OAO "Gidroproekt" institute). The contamination of environment components (soils, rocks, ground and surface water, river-bed sediments, and snow) was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively in the park. Simulation models were built for changing hydrogeological conditions in the park for different design options. The results obtained were included in the design documents submitted to the governmental ecological expert commission.

  • The engineering geological substantiation of the construction project for Moscow monorail railway was performed in the part of generalizing geotechnical parameters and selecting calculation parameters of rock foundation properties. (OOO "Proekttransstroy", the designer). The results obtained were applied to the elaboration of transport system design. For the territory of Moscow, the regularities in the variation of composition, structure, and physicomechanical properties of Jurassic clay under hypergenic transformations were revealed. The relationships between shift strength and decompaction degree of clay and the value of normal stress applied were found.

  • The following geological and geoenvironmental maps were built for the Tatarstan republic territory with legends and comments to them: types of geoenvironmental structure; the newest tectonic structure; the subsurface lineaments; the development of exogenic processes; karst hazard, etc. The computer maps were built to a scale of 1 : 500 000.

  • Within the framework of the complex program "Safety of Moscow", the methods of study, monitoring and prediction of natural hazard in Moscow were systematized. The following draft normative documents were elaborated: " The classifier of methods of study, monitoring, and prediction of natural hazards" and "The nomenclature of engineering geological maps used in monitoring of hazardous geological processes". These documents are aimed to be guides in a vast variety of methods permitting to select an adequate combination of approved methods for solving particular problems, to reduce work period and labor expenses.

  • As an initiative research, the first version of methodical recommendations to monitoring of hazardous geological and geocryological processes for oil extraction in the territory of Russian Federation was compiled. The research performed permits increasing the reliability and environmental safety of operating oil-extracting, transporting, and reprocessing facilities by accident control and prevention.

  • Within the framework of the Russian-French international project, the main legal standards and procedures used in rational use and protection of environment and emergency situation prevention were generalized and systematized. The research is aimed at bringing legislative acts being developed in different countries to conformity.

  • In the framework of agreement with AOZT "Kievsoyuzdorproekt", the landslide hazard was assessed for the Lermontov-Cherkessk highway slope and the landslide-control measures were suggested.

  • The staff of laboratory was engaged in expert examination of the following major international and regional projects (in the part of evaluating survey results):

    • Substantiation of investment to "Sakhalin -1" project (stage 1)
    • Substantiation of working draft on " Arrangement of Kirsko-Kottynskii oil pipeline", "Zonal engineering draft of drilling borehole no.1 at the Central site in the Anadyr Bay of Beringov Sea";
    • Environmental and economic substantiation of arranging national park "Buzulukskii bor" in Orenburg and Samara oblasts of Russian Federation;
    • Draft arrangement of national park "Sylvenskii".
  • In 2002, the staff of laboratory prepared

    • 25 publications;
    • 5 small-scale maps for the Tatarstan Republic territory;
    • 18 reports at the Russian and international conferences